(6) 1. INGUANZO Y RIVERO, Pedro de (1764-1836)
Birth. December 22, 1764, palace de la Herrería, parish of Vibaño, Llanes, diocese of Oviedo, Spain. Form a family of the small nobility. Tenth of the thirteen children of Antonio de Inguanzo y Posada (1724-1795) and María Teresa Rivero y Valdés (1731-1801). He was baptized on December 29, 1764 in Llanes.
Education. First studies at the public school of Llanes; hen, attended the School of the Benedictine convent of Celorio (Latin, philosophy and theology); also stiudied at the Dominican convent of San Pablo, Palencia (philosophy and arts, 1775-1780); then at the University of Oviedo (utroque iuris, both civil and canon law); and finally, at the University of Sevilla, from 1785 to 1790, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both civil and canon law.
Early life. In the archdiocese of Sevilla, secretary of Archbishop Marcos de Llanes; professor of its university. In the diocese of Oviedo, rector of Colegio Mayor de San José; canon doctoral of its cathedral, 1795; pro-vicar general; episcopal governor. Named, by Superior Junta of the Principality of Asturias, minister of Grace and Justice of the regional government established to fight against the French, 1809. Deputy to the Cortes of Cádiz, 1810-1813. Presented by the Spanish king Fernando VII, for the diocese of Zamora on August 19, 1814.
Priesthood. Ordained, shortly before his episcopal consecration.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Zamora, September 26, 1814. Consecrated, Sunday, February 12, 1815, chapell of the First Monastery of the Visitation, Madrid, by Blas Joaquín Álvarez de Palma, archbishop of Granada, assisted by Francisco Javier Mier Campillo, bishop of Almería, and by Atanasio Puyal Poveda, bishop of Calahorra y La Calzada; in the same ceremony was consecrated José Antonio Azpeitia Sáenz de Santamaría, bishop of Lugo. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, September 27, 1824. Deputy for Asturias to the Cortes of Cádiz. Member of the Royal Academy of History. Counselor of State.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1824; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, February 28, 1831. Did not participate in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. In his final years he was affected by paralysis.
Death. January 30, 1836, at noon, Toledo. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo and buried in the chapel of San Pedro in that cathedral. His his laus funeraria/rogito are on the wall leading to the sacristy (1).
Bibliography. Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 153; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 480-482; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 19, 45, 372 and 402.
Webgraphy. Biography by José Carlos de Lera Maíllo, in Spanish, Diccionario Biográfico Español; biography, in Spanish, in II "El Cardenal Inguanzo", Portal de Llanes.
(1) This is the text of the inscription, (the gap in the middle of the lower half of the inscription is where his coat of arms are displayed), kindly provided by
Mr. Mark West, from London:
(7) 2. MICARA, O.F.M.Cap., Ludovico (1775-1847)
Birth. October 12, 1775, Frascati, Papal State (1). Third of the seven children of Gianfilippo Micara and Gaetana Lucidi. Baptized in the cathedral of S. Pietro Apostolo of Frascati by his uncle, Francesco Lucidi, archpriest of the cathedral chapter of Frascati. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Clemente Micara (1946).
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Frascati, as external pupil; when he was very young, he entered the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins at the convent of Frascati, 1793; received the habit, October 25, 1794; took the name Ludovico da Frascati; continued his formation at Capuchin house of studies in Rome; had to leave Rome because of the 1798 Napoleonic campaign and the establishment of the Roman Republic; finished his studies in Naples.
Priesthood. Ordained, end of 1798, Naples. Returned to Rome in 1810; went to Frascati after the Napoleonic ordinance abolishing religious convents and became acting archpriest of the cathedral chapter because the titular was in exile. Refused to celebrate a Te Deum for the Napoleonic victory and had to escape to the countryside where he was arrested and imprisoned in Civitavecchia and, later, in Corneto; escaped and went into hiding in S. Severa. After the fall of Napoléon, rejoined his religious order and was named lector in the convent of Albano. Consultor of the S.C. of Indulgences, December 1, 1817. Postulator for the canonization causes of the Capuchins. Elected provincial minister of his order in Rome, 1819. He was most appreciated as an orator for his eloquence and profound doctrine, having preached in the most imprtant Italian cities. Preacher of the Apostolic Palace and examiner of bishops in theology, September 13, 1820; occupied the former post until 1826, when his promotion to the cardinalate was published. Theologian to Cardinal Annibale della Genga Sermattei, future Pope Leo XII. Appointed by the pope minister general of his order, March 9, 1824; occupied the post until 1830, for six years after his promotion to the cardinalate. Deputy for the apostolic visits extraordinary of the churches of Rome, May 31, 1824.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 20, 1824; published in the consistory of March 13, 1826; received the red hat, March 16, 1826; and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, July 3, 1826. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Index, Discipline of Regulars, Examination of Bishops in Sacred Theology, Ecclesiastical Affairs, and Bishops and Regulars. Granted permission to wear maroon cardinalitial vestments instead of the cardinalitial red. President of the permanent deputation of the Conservatori di Roma. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.
Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, October 2, 1837. Consecrated, October 15, 1837, cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, assisted by Giovanni Soglia, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, and by Antonio Piatti, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch. In Frascati he founded the city hospital and the Accademia Tuscolana and gave great example of charity and pastoral zeal. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in November 1843; as such, he did not opt for the suburbicarian see of Porto preferring to keep his suburbicarian see of Frascati. Protector of Velletri, the Conservatorio Pio and of the Confraternity of S. Andrea de'pescivendoli. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites from November 28, 1843 until his death. Prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial, May 1, 1844. When in Velletri, he resided in its seminary. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, June 17, 1844; he was also named apostolic legate of Velletri and its province. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. He conducted a very austere life and continued living in the Capuchin convent in piazza Barberini, Rome.
Death. May 24, 1847, after a long and painful illness, a violent form of tuberculosis, Rome. The funeral, celebrated by Cardinal Luigi Vannicelli Casoni, took place in the Capuchin church of S. Maria della Ssma. Concezione, Rome, where he was buried, according to his will (2). Funerals were also celebrated in the city of Velletri and in the city and seminary of Frascati. He left his family lifetime pensions allocating the principal portion of his considerable inheritance in favor of the Conservatory of Frascati and other pious institutions.
Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, p. 429-430; De Camillis, Mario. "Micara, Ludovico" in Enciclopedia Cattolica (12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-1954), VIII, col. 929-930; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 640-641; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLV, 15-16; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 19, 37, 39 and 41; Rossiglione, Michelangelo da ; Nizza, Bonifazio da. Cenni biografici e ritratti di padri illustri dell'ordine capuccino : sublimati alle dignità ecclesiastiche dal 1581 al 1804. 3 v. in 1. Roma : G.A. Bertinelli, 1850. Contents: v. 1. Dal 1581 al 1804.--v. 2. Dal 1804 al 1850.--v. 3. Dal 1570 al 1850, p. 5-8. Notes: Vol. 1 substantially reproduces the work of Bonifacio da Nizza, entitled: Ritratti degli uomini illustri dell'Instituto de'minori cappuccini promessi e destinati a dignità ecclesiastiche (Roma: Saloroni, 1804).--Vat. Lib. card./ Vol. 3 has varying subtitle./ Dedication signed: F. Michelangelo da Rossiglione./ Preface signed: Fr. Carlo Felice da Milano. Other title: Ritratti degli uomini illustri dell'Instituto de'minori cappuccini promessi e destinati a dignità ecclesiastiche; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 486-487.
Webgraphy. Biography by Giovanni Castaldo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 74 (2010), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 429; De Camillis, Mario. "Micara, Ludovico" in Enciclopedia Cattolica, VIII, col. 929-930; Leblanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 640; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLV, 15; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 486. His first biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was born on August 28, 1775 and not on October 28, 1775 as other sources say. His second biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was born on July 28, 1775.
(2) According to Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife, p. 429, his epitaph only says: hic jacet pulvis et cinis, orate pro eo.
LAMENNAIS, Robert Hugues-Félicité de (1782-1854)
Birth. June 29, 1782, at 5 rue Saint-Vincent, Saint-Malo, Brittany, France. One of the six children of Pierre Robert de Lamennais, a successful merchant ennobled by King Louis XVI of France at the request of the Estates of Brittany in recognition of his public services, and Gratienne Lorin. He was intended by his father to follow a mercantile career. Hs brother Jean-Marie also entered the priesthood. His last name is also listed as La Mennais; and his first name as Hugues Félicité Robert.
Education. His mother died in 1787 and his father entrusted the education of his two sons to Robert des Saudrais, his wife's brother-in-law. The two children went to live with their uncle at La Chênaie, an estate near Saint-Malo. There was a good library in the estate with works of piety and theological books were mingled with the ancient classics and the works of the eighteenth-century philosophers. When Félicité misbehaved, he was sent to the library and thus, he developed a great interest in the books he found in the library and read voraciously and indiscriminately all that came to his hands. He looked for reasons to be sent to the library, dedicated himself there to his readings, and made such rapid progress that he was soon able to read the classical authors without difficulty. He completed his literary education and acquired foreign languages; since he studied without teachers or guidance, this produced gaps in his training, and gave him an inclination to intellectual intolerance.
Early life. The French Revolution had forced numerous priests to leave the country or to go underground. The Lamennais family offered assistance to one of those priests, Abbé Vielle. Félicité assisted him in the celebration of mass and acquired a strong dislike for the Revolution. At the same time, because of his reading without guidance, he was prejudiced against religion and this made his confessor to postpone indefinitely his first communion. The influence of his brother Jean Marie, who was ordained to the priesthood in 1804, helped him to restore his Christian sentiments, which allowed him to receive his first communion. That same year, he decided to dedicate himself to the service of the church and in La Chênaie, under the direction of Fr. Jean-Marie, did his ecclesiastical studies from 1806. In 1808, together with his brother, he published the book Réflexions sur l'état de l'Église en France pendant le dix-huitieme siècle et sur sa situation actuelle. Many of the views expressed in the book offended the imperial government and it was suppressed by the police; not until the fall of the empire it was republished. In 1811 he received the tonsure. The Lamennais brothers were appointed professors at the College de Saintt-Malo; Félicité taught mathematics; his father's business having been ruined by the Continental Blockade, he had to make a living; when the college was closed by imperial authority, Félicité returned to La Chênaie and Jean-Marie became vicar general of the diocese of Saint-Brieuc. Félicité, again with the collaboration of his brother, completed a work, printed and published in Paris in 1814, in which he opposed Napoléon's plans to give to the metropolitan archbishops the canonical instuitution of bishops at the expense of the papal authority. This work was the starting point of Lamennais' stance against Gallicanism. During the Hundred Days, he went to England; he was assisted there by Fr. Carron, a French priest who had established in London a school for the children of émigrés. When the last Napoleonic adventure was over, he returned to France and continued his friendship with Fr. Carron, who had also gone back to Paris; the example of this priest and the counsel of the Sulpitian Fr. Beysserre, helped him decide to be ordained a priest; he had to overcome strong doubts and hesitations. In 1815, in Paris, he lived in a dependence of the convent of Feuillantines; at the same time, young Victor Hugo resided there with his mother and his brother.
Priesthood. Ordained, March 9, 1817. Towards the end of the same year, 1817, the first volume of the Essai sur l'indifférence en matière de religion was published; its second volume appeared in 1820; and the last two volumes in 1823. From 1818 to 1820 he collaborated in the paper Conservateur, founded by François René, viscount of Chateaubriand; it ceased publication when the censorship of the press was again established in March 1820. He founded Le Défenseur in 1820 with Louis de Bonald, Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Lamartine, Charles Nodier and other collaborators. In 1828, he founded the Congrégation de Saint-Pierre (1), intended to form a clergy erudite, able to answer to the attacks of the philosophers, to better understand its time and to restore the authority of the pope in France. He began a remarkable campaign against Gallicanism and anti-Christian philosophy and soon became the most celebrated French cleric of the time and was the most open advocate of ultramontanism in France for many years. He believed that the church could have no real liberty under a royal government and that free speech and a free press were essential. The criticisms of the Essai irritated Fr. Lamennais but did not convince him that it contained any errors; he submitted the book to Rome and, to reply to his critics, he wrote the Défense de l'Essai in 1821. Rome limited its response to granting its imprimatur to an Italian translation of the Essai. Fr. Lamennais visited the Holy See and Pope Leo XII received him very kindly.
Cardinalate. According to his biographical entry in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Pope Leo XII thought of elevating him to the cardinalate, in spite of his inflammable character and extreme positions; but the promotion never came to happen. The last of his biographies in English linked below says that Pope Leo XII offered him the cardinalate and that he refused the promotion.
Later life. On October 16, 1830, he founded the newspaper L'Avenir and asked for freedom of conscience, press and religion. His work in the newspaper created a sensation, and he was soon entangled with the conservative, royalistic Gallicans among the clergy. He also founded the General Agency for the Defense of Religious Liberty. In 1831, along with Jean-Baptiste-Henri Dominique Lacordaire and Charles-Forbes-René, count de Montalembert, he went to Rome to submit his quarrel with the Gallican clergy to Pope Gregory XVI, but, without expressly designating Fr. Lamennais, the pope condemned in the encyclical Mirari vos of August 15, 1832 some of the ideas advanced in L'Avenir such as liberty of the press, liberty of conscience, revolt against princes and the need of regenerating Catholicism; Fr. Lamennais opposed the pope arguing that the pontiff supported the princes more than the people. He submitted to papal authority towards the end of 1833; he soon recanted his submission. The publication in 1834 of his book Paroles d'un croyant sealed his rupture with the Catholic Church; in his work, he launched a pressing and prophetic call to the freedom of the Church and developed the socialist and democratic tendencies with its message evangelic; his friends left him little by little. The pope explicitly condemned Fr. Lamennais in his encyclical Singulari Nos, dated June 25, 1834, which also condemned the Liberal Catholic movement. After that, he retired for two years and appeared in public as a non-Christian. He continued to take the side of the people and because of his attacks on the royal government, in 1841 he spent one year in prison in Sainte-Pélagie, accused of conspiration; he was condemned in spite of the support of Chateaubriant and George Sand, who were very impressed by his political engagement; imprisonment did not change his views. When Pope Pius IX was elected in 1846, Lamennais did not follow the suggestion of some liberal Catholics to enter the church again. When the Revolution of 1848 happened, he was elected deputy in April of that year, by 104,811 votes, to the last seat given to Paris; he was named a member of the committee to prepare the new constitution; he advocated universal suffrage, universal free education, progressive taxation; an end to the monopoly of the university and the separation of church and state; and opposed a strongly centralized government, and called for local liberties; he resigned his post the following May, disappointed by the behavior of certain fellow-members who opposed local freedoms in particular. After the revolutionary days of June 1848, he closed his newspaper, Le Peuple constituant, which had been published from February 27 to July 11. He considered that the repression which followed made shame to the Second French Republic. He withdrew again to his property of Chesnay in Brittany. Legal action was taken against Lamennais, and in October the paper was condemned and he was fined; he joined representatives of the left to support the presidential candidacy of Alexandre-Auguste Ledru-Rollin, and wrote forty-three articles for the democratic-socialist La Réforme in 1849, before the paper ceased publication on January 12, 1850. Later, Lamennais condemned the coup of Louis Napoleon. He was the leading Catholic thinker of Restoration in France as well as the first proponent of Liberal Catholicism and an early advocate of social Catholicism. His eventual advocacy of a conciliation between Catholicism and Liberalism led to his rupture with the Church.
Death. February, 27, 1854, Paris; on his deathbed he refused to see a priest and died without having reconciled with the Church. On March 1, 1854, he was buried, as he had requested, in an unmarked common grave in the cemetery of Père-Lachaise, Paris. He also refused to have religious obsequies. The workers and the Marseillaise accompanied his casket.
Bibliography. Ashbourne, William Gibson. The Abbé de Lamennais and the liberal Catholic movement in France. London ; New York : Longmans, Green, 1896; Boutard, Charles. Lamennais, sa vie et ses doctrines. 3 vol. Paris: Perrin, 1913; Chauvin, Charles. Lamennais ou l'impossible conciliation : 1782-1854. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer, 1999. (Temps et visages. Série religion, spiritualité); Derré, Jean René. Lammennais, ses amis et le mouvement des idées à l'époque romantique, 1824-1834. Paris : Librairie C. Klincksieck, 1962. (Bibliothèque française et romane. Série C: Études littéraires, 3); Derré, Jean René. Metternich et Lamennais d'après les documents conservés aux Archives de Vienne. Paris : Presses universitaires de France, 1963. (Collection de l'Institut français de Vienne); Duroselle, J.-B. Les débuts du Catholicisme social en France (1822-1870) . Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1951; Droulers, Paul. Action pastorale et problèmes sociaux sous la Monarchie de Juillet chez Mgr. d'Astros, Archevêque de Toulouse, censeur de la Mennais. Préf. de S. Em. le Cardinal Saliège. Paris : J. Vrin, 1954. (Bibliothèque de la Société d'histoire ecclésiastique de la France); Giraud, Victor. La vie tragique de Lamennais. Paris : Librairie Félix Alcan, 1933. (Les énigmes de l'histoire); LeGuillou, Louis. "Lamennais fut-il créé cardinal par Léon XII?" Cahiers mennaisiens, v. 9, 1978, 1-9; Le Guillou, Louis. L'Évolution de la pensée religieuse Félicité Lamennais. Paris : A. Colin, 1966; Le Guillou, Marie-Joseph ; Le Guillou, Louis. La Condamnation de Lamennais : dossier. Paris : Beauchesne, 1982. (Textes, dossiers, documents ; 5). Responsibility: présenté par M.J. Le Guillou et Louis Le Guillou; Martini, Magda. La dernière amitié féminine de Lamennais. Genève : E. Droz, 1956. (Société de publications romanes et françises. (Société de publications romanes et françaises ; 55); Mourre, Michel. Lamennais; ou L'hérésie des temps modernes. Paris : Amiot-Dumont, 1955. (Recherches); Oldfield, John J. The problem of tolerance and social existence in the writings of Félicité Lamennais, 1809-1831. Leiden : E. J. Brill, 1973. (Studies in the history of Christian thought, v. 7); Rémond, René. Lamennais et la démocratie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1948; Roe, William Gordon. Lamennais and England : the reception of Lamennais's religious ideas in England in the nineteenth century. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1966. (Oxford modern languages and literature monographs); Rogers, Claire-Lise; and Ruth L. White. Relations Hugo-Lamennais, 1821-1854. Paris : Champion ; Genève : Slatkine, 1989; Stearns, Peter N. Priest and Revolutionary: Lamennais and the Dilemma of French Catholicism. New York: Harper and Row, 1967; Tuloup, François. Lamennais et son époque; sa vie, son óeuvre, son influence, son prophétisme. Dinan : Impr. commerciale, 1961; Vallery-Radot, Robert. Lamennais : ou le prêtre malgré lui. Paris : Plon, 1931; Vidler, Alexander R. Prophecy and Papacy: A Study of Lamennais, the Church and the Revolution. London : Scribner, 1954.
Webgraphy. Biography, in French; portrait and biography, in English; chronology of his life and works, in French; biography, in English; and another biography, in English.
(1) He founded the congregation with the assistance of a number of young men, ecclesiastics and laymen, such as Olympe-Philippe Gerbet, Louis-Antoine de Salinis, Jean-Baptiste-Henri Dominique Lacordaire, Count Charles-Forbes-René de Montalembert, René François Rohrbacher, Théodore Combalot, Maurice de Guérin, Charles de Sainte-Foy, Eugène and Léon Boré, and Jean-François de Hercé.
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