(8) 1. CROY, Gustave-Maximilien-Juste de (1773-1844)
Birth. September 12, 1773, in his family's castle l'Ermitage, diocese of Cambrai, France. Fifth of the six sons of Anne Emmanuel Ferdinand François (1743-1803), eighth duke de Croy, fourth prince of Solre, and Auguste Friederike Wilhelmine zu Salm-Kyrburg (1747-1822). His last name is also listed as Croÿ; and as Croÿ-Solre.
Education. (No information found). Entered ecclesiastical life at a very young age.
Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Strasbourg, 1789. Because of the French Revolution, sought refuge in Vienna in 1791; he did not return to France until 1819.
Priesthood. Ordained, November 3, 1797, Vienna. Conclavist of Cardinal Christoph Anton von Migazzi in the conclave of 1799-1800.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Strasbourg, August 23, 1819. Consecrated, January 9, 1820, church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, by Jean-Charles de Coucy, archbishop of Reims, assisted by Jules de Clermont-Tonnerre, former bishop of Châlos, and by Jean-Baptist-Marie-Anne-Antoine de Latil, bishop of Chartres. Grand almoner of France, 1821 until 1830. Peer of the French kingdom, 1822. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, November 17, 1823. Assisted King Louis XVIII in his death bed and presided his funeral in Saint-Denis, Paris.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 21, 1825; received the red hat, May 18, 1829; and the title of S. Sabina, May 21, 1829. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.
Death. January 1, 1844, of gout, in Rouen. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen and buried in the chapel of Sainte Vierge in that cathedral.
Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 779-780; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 251-252; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 271-273; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 19, 44, 88 and 326.
Webgraphy. His genealogy, A1 E1 F5.
(9) 2. CAPPELLARI, O.S.B.Cam., Mauro (1765-1846)
Birth. September 18, 1765, Belluno. Of a patrician family. Youngest of the five childre of Giovanni Battista Cappellari (1719-1807), a notary, and Giulia Pagani Gesa (+ 1793), they belonged to the small Venetian nobility. His baptismal name was Bartolomeo Alberto.
Education. Entered the Order of St. Benedict Camaldolese, August 23, 1783, monastery of San Michele di Murano, near Venice, in spite of the opposition of his parents; took the name Mauro; professed, 1786. Received his education in Benedictine houses of study.
Priesthood. Ordained, 1787. Professor of philosophy and science, he became lector of theology in 1790 in the monastery of San Michele di Murano. Censor of books for his order, and for the Holy Office, Venice, 1790 . In 1795 he left Murano for Rome for the first time as socius of the procurator general of his order. He gathered the necessary materials for the publication of his Antijansenist work Il tronfo della Santa Sede e della Chiesa contro gli assalti de' novatori respinti e combattuti colle stesse loro armi, published in Rome in 1799 and dedicated to Pope Pius VI, who was a prisoner of the French. Pope Pius VII, who had been recently elected, called him to Rome in 1800; he was named abbot vicar of the monastery of S. Gregorio al Monte Celio in 1800; abbot, 1805. He was one of the founders of Accademia della Religione Cattolica on February 4, 1801. Procurator general of his order, 1807. The French occupation of Rome forced him to retire to Murano, where he taught theology in the Benedictine college; and later to Padua in 1813 when the college was transferred to that city. Returned to Rome in 1814. Consultor to the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, September 17, 1814; and of the Holy Office, March 10, 1816. Examiner of bishops in theology, March 31, 1818. Consultor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, February 29, 1820; and of the Correction of Books of the Oriental Churches, before May 23, 1821. Pope Leo XII named him apostolic visitor to the universities of Perugia, Camerino, Macerata and Fermo. He was offered a bishopric in two occasions but declined.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 21, 1825; published in the consistory of March 13, 1826; received the red hat, March 16, 1826; and the title of S. Callisto, July 3, 1826. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, October 1, 1826 until February 2, 1831. He closely collaborated with Cardinal Ignazio Nasalli, in Rome, in the conclusion of a concordat with Holland on June 18, 1827. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831 and was elected pope. He is the latest pope who was not a bishop when elected.
Papacy. Elected pope, February 2, 1831, Rome. Took the name Gregory XVI.
Episcopate. Consecrated bishop of Rome, February 6, 1831, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, seniore, bishop of Ostia and Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Cardinal Pier Francesco Galleffi, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and by Cardinal Tommasso Arezzo, bishop of Sabina; crowned on that same day by Cardinal Giuseppe Albani, cardinal protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. He created seventy five cardinals in twenty six consistories; of the twenty nine cardinals that he created and reserved in pectore, six were never published.
Death. June 1, 1846, of cancer, in Rome. Exposed and buried, on June 6, 1846, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica.
Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, p. 333-335; Cacciamani, Giuseppe M. Storia del conclave di Papa Gregorio XVI (15 dicembre 1830 - 2 febbraio 1831). Fano : Edizioni Camaldoli, 1960; Demarco, Domenico. Il tramonto dello stato pontificio. Il papato di Gregorio XVI. Torino : G. Einaudi, 1949. (Biblioteca di cultura storica, 31); Di Sivio, Michele. "Gregorio XVI." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 586-588; Gregorio XVI promotore delle arti e della cultura. A cura di Francesca Longo, Claudia Zaccagnini, Fabrizio Fabbrini. Ospedaletto (Pisa) : Pacini, c2008. Note: Proceedings of the conference held in Rome, Italy, Mar. 22-24, 2006; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.307-309; Korten, Christopher. The making of a pope : how Mauro Cappellari became Pope Gregory XVI (1765-1831). Dissertation: Thesis (D. Phil.)--University of Oxford, 2006. Note(s): Supervisor: Dr David Laven, Professor Robert Evans. Material Type: Biography (bio); Thesis/dissertation (deg); Manuscript (mss); LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 207-214; Martina, Giacomo. "Gregorio XVI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 546-560; Regoli, Roberto. "Gregorio XVI : una ricerca storiografica." Archivum Historiae Pontificiae XLIV (2006), p. 141-171; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 19, 24-25 and 40-41.
Webgraphy. Biography by Leslie Toke, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Giacomo Martina, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000), Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church; his sepulchral monument by Luigi Amici, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, Brian McMorrow, PBase.com; his effigy on a silver coin, 1831, Numismatica Lago Maggiore S.p.A.; his portrait by Paul Delaroche, 1844, Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, France, Réunion des Musées Nationaux-Grand Palais.
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