Birth. September 3, 1836, Desznica, diocese of Przemysl, Poland, Austrian Empire. Son of Antoni Sembratowicz (1807-1848), a parish priest of the Greek-Ruthenian rite, and Anna z Wisłockich. Nephew of Archbishop Józef Sembratowicz (1821-1900) of Lviv and Halicz of the Greek-Ruthenians. His last name is also listed as Sembratovych. He belonged to the Greek-Ruthenian rite.
Education. Studied at the Greek-Ruthenian College of St. Athanasius, Rome; and at the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propagada Fide, Rome, 1856-1860, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1861. Received the tonsure, the minor order of lectorate and the subdiaconate on August 31, 1860, from Stefano Missir, titular bishop of Irenopoli in Cilicia (Greek rite) in the church of St. Athanasius of the Greeks church; and the diaconate on September 2, 1860, from the same bishop and in the same church.
Priesthood. Ordained, November 1, 1860, by Stefano Missir, titular bishop of Irenopoli in Cilicia, in the church of St. Athanasius of the Greeks, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1860-1861. Prefect of studies, Greek-Ruthenian Seminary of Lviv, 1863-1865. Professor of theology, University of Lviv, 1865-1879. Prosynodal examiner.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Juliopolis and appointed auxiliary of Lviv and Halicz of the Greek-Ruthenians, February 28, 1879. Consecrated, April 20, 1879, Ruthenian cathedral, Lviv, by Józef Sembratowicz, archbishop of Lviv and Halicz of the Greek-Ruthenians, assisted by Franciszek Ksawery Wierzchlejski, archbishop of Lviv of the Latins, and by Jan Stupnyckj, bishop of Przemyśl of the Greek-Ruthenians. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lviv and Halicz of the Greek-Ruthenians, March 27, 1885. He reformed the Basilian Monastic Order; published vernacular prayer books; and celebrated a synod in 1891. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 17, 1894.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received red hat and title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, June 25, 1896.
Death. August 4, 1898, Lviv. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lviv.
Bibliography. Jujeczka, Stanisław. Klerycy z ziem polskich, litewskich i pruskich święceni w Rzymie (XVI – pocz. XX w.); Clerici ex terris Poloniae, Lithuaniae et Prussiae Romae seu Urbe ordinati (saec. XVI ad init. XX). Wrocław, 2018, p. 249, n. 901; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, GrégoireXVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 867-868; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 437-440.
Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in German, Wikipedia.
Birth. July 21, 1839, Marsciano, diocese of Perugia. Of a family of the local patriciate. Son of Domenico Satolli and Domenica Calzini. His eldest brother was Giovanni Battista.
Education. Initial studies in Marsciano; then he entered the Seminary of Perugia in 1853, where he studied humanities, philosophy and theology until 1862; Father Giuseppe Pecci, brother of Pope Leo XIII and future cardinal, was one of his professors; later, he attended La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained doctorate in philosophy.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 14, 1862, Perugia, by Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, bishop of Perugia (future Pope Leo XIII). Further studies in Rome. In the diocese of Perugia, pastoral ministry and professor of letters in its seminary, 1864-1870; pastor in Marsciano, 1870-1872; in Montecassino, 1872-1874. Faculty member, Pontifical Urban College of Propaganda Fide, Rome, 1880-1882; and of the Roman College, Rome, 1882-1884; rector of the Greek-Ruthenian College, Rome, 1884-1886; rector of the Pontifical Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics, Rome, 1886-1888.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Lepanto, June 1, 1888. Consecrated, July 10, 1888, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, bishop of Albano, assisted by Raffaele Sirolli, bishop of Aquino, Sora e Pontecorvo, and by Elia Bianchi, bishop of Nicosia. Visited the United States in 1889 to attend the celebrations for the centennial of the establishment of the Catholic hierarchy and the inauguration of the Catholic University of America in Washington. Visited again at the end of 1892 and took up residence at the Catholic University of America, where he gave a course of lectures on the philosophy of St. Thomas. Appointed first apostolic delegate to the United States, January 14, 1893.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received red hat and title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, December 3, 1896. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, December 16, 1896. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies from July 21, 1897 until his death. Legate a latere for the opening of the holy door at the Lateran basilica for the beginning of the Holy Year of 1900, December 14, 1899. Legate a latere for the closing of the holy door at the Lateran basilica at the end of the Holy Year of 1900. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 22, 1903. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.
Death. January 8, 1910, at 4 am., of an attack of nephritis and atrophy of the right lung complicated by blood poisoning, in Rome He was assisted on his deathbed by three priests, including his nephew, Father Ercole Satolli; and his secretary. His body was exposed in the chapel of the Lateran Palace. The funeral was celebrated in the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 259-260.
Webgraphy. Biography by Massimo Di Gioacchino, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 90 (2017), Treccani; biography by Edward Pace, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Johannes Madey, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his photograph, Paul V. Galvin Library Digital History Collection; photographs, arms and engraving, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. April 30, 1825, Sankt Martin in Passeier, diocese of Trent, Austria. Son of Jean Mathieu Barnabé Boyer (ca.1805-1869), originally from Aix, who settled in Paray to work in a carpentry workshop, and Françoise Toullion (+ post 1869). The parents moved to Lambesc (Provence) in 1856.
Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Semur in Brionnais until 1850; then at the Benedictine Gymnasium, Meran; at the Lyceum in Innsbruck; at the Seminary of Trent (philosophy and theology). Received the insignias of the clerical character and two of the minor orders (acolyte and lector) on December 8, 1845; the other minor orders (ostiarian and exorcist) on November 29, 1846; the subdiaconate on June 29, 1847; and the diaconate on July 4, 1847.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1848. For one year, cooperator in Moos; for eleven years, cooperator in the parish of Sarntheim, Trent; for three years, spiritual director of the monastery of Sankt Benedikt in Säben in Brixen; pastor in Layen; pro-vicar of the German portion of the diocese of Trent, 1871-1874.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Adraa and appointed auxiliary of Trent, August 14, 1874. Consecrated, October 14, 1874, metropolitan cathedral of Salzburg, by Cardinal Maximilian Joseph von Tarnóczy, archbishop of Salzburg, assisted by Johannes Jakub della Bona, titular bishop of Tenedo and auxiliary of Salzburg, and by Joseph Mooslechner, dean of the cathedral chapter. Vicar capitular, 1879. Auxiliary of Salzburg and provost of its cathedral chapter, 1880. Elected to the metropolitan see of Salzburg by the cathedral chapter, May 20, 1890, confirmed by the Pope, June 26, 1890. The archbishops of Salzburg have the title of Primas Germaniæ since 1648.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received red hat and title of S. Bartolommeo all'Isola, June 25, 1896.
Death. April 5, 1900, Salzburg. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Salzburg (1).
Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. March 2, 1834, Calanda, archdiocese of Zaragoza, Spain. From a noble family. Twelfth child of Agustón Cascajares y Bardaxí (1794-1860), baron de Bárcabo and Catalina de Azara y Mata (1794-1869). His brother Manuel (1814-1872) was deputy (1865-1871) and senator for Teruel (1871-1872); and his brother Felipe (1820-1903), was a general and senator for Teruel (1877-1880. Grand-nephew, on his father's side, of Cardinal Dionisio Bardaxí y Azara (1816).
Early life. Joined the military entering the School of Artillery of Segovia in 1846. In 1856, he was promoted to lieutenant in the Fifth Cavalry Regiment. In 1857, he retired with the rank of captain to pursue his ecclesiastical studies.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Zaragoza, where he obtained a licentiate in theology and another in canon law.
Priesthood. Ordained, February 23, 1861, in Zaragoza, by Manuel García Gil, O.P., archbishop of Zaragoza. He obtained benefices in the churches of El Pilar in Calanda; and in La Granja. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Gerona. Canon treasurer of the cathedral chapter of Zaragoza. Archdeacon of the archdiocese of Toledo. Dean of the archdiocese of Burgos. Nominated for the episcopate by King Alfonso XII of Spain on January 25, 1882.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Dora, March 27, 1882 (1). Consecrated, June 4, 1882, in the royal chapel of Madrid, by Angelo Bianchi (2), titular archbishop of Mira, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Victoriano Guisasola y Rodríguez, bishop of Orihuela, and by Ciriaco María Sancha y Hervás, bishop of Avila. His episcopal motto was Sit nomen Domini benedictum. The Holy See and the apostolic nuncio in Spain, Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, were very reticent about his promotion considering the he had not sufficient theological preparation to assume the episcopate. Transferred to the see of Calahorra y La Calzada, with residence in Logroño, March 27, 1884; this time Nuncio Rampolla had to abandon his objections due to the insistence of the king. Presented by the queen regent for the see of Valadolid. Promoted by the pope to the metropolitan see of Valladolid, December 17, 1891; received the pallium on that same day; he had been presented for the see by Queen Regent Maria Cristina on the previous December 14.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received red hat and title of S. Eusebio, June 25, 1896. In 1897, Maria Cristina, queen regent of Spain, wanted his transfer to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo but he did not want to leave his see of Valladolid. Opted for title of S. Agostino, March 24, 1898. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Zaragoza, April 18, 1901; received the pallium on that same day. Died without having taken possession of the see of Zaragoza.
Death. July 27, 1901, Calahorra. Exposed in the cathedral of Calahorra; and buried in the church of El Pilar, in Calanda. In his house in Calanda was placed a plaque on the centennial of his birth (3).
Bibliography. "Antoine-Marie Cascajares y Azara" in "Les Éminetissimes Cardinaux", "Cardinaux prêtres", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1901. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1900, p. 129; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 49; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Gró;goire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 222-223; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 38, 46, 48, 170, 250 and 580.
Webgraphy. Biography by Vicente Cárcel Ortí, in Spanish, Diccionario Biográfico Español, DB~e; biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; La tercera vma del cardenal Cascajares. Una figura clave durante la Regencia de Marma Cristina, old by Javier Morillas, La Aventura de la Historia; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) Since September 5, 1851, the titular see of Dora had united in perpetuum the priorate of the four military orders of Santiago, Alcántara, Calatrava and Montesa, in the city of Ciudad Real. The occupant had the authority of grand master of the orders and, subjected to the Apostolic See, exercised spiritual jurisdiction in the civil territory of that province.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 250. Echeverría, Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985, p. 49, indicates that the consecrator was Giovanni Elia Bianchi, titular archbishop of Nicosia, nuncio in Spain, but he never occupied that diplomatic post.
(3) This is the inscription of the plaque, taken from his biography in Spanish, linked above: "En esta casa nació Don Antonio María Cascajares y Azara, obispo de Ciudad Real y Calahorra, y Arzobispo de Valladolid y Zaragoza, del consejo de regencia de Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena". Calanda 27 de julio de 2001.
Birth. March 29, 1834, parish of La Maddalena, Genoa. Second of the five children of Filippo Gotti, a longshoreman originally from Bergamo, and Caterina Schiappacasse. The other siblings were Lorenzo, Giacomo, Anna and Violante; one of his brothers, a porter in the Genoa harbor, was condemned for homicide. He was baptized on the following day of his birth. His baptismal name was Antonio Giovanni Benedetto. Received the sacrament of confirmation, April 14, 1846.
Education. From 1838 to 1848, he completed his studies liceali (Latin, Greek, grammar, mathematics, physics and music) at the Jesuit school in Genoa, situated in palazzo Doria-Tursi; then, in 1849, he entered the Order of Discalced Carmelites; and received the name religious name Girolamo Maria dell'Immacolata Concezione, November 7, 1850; received the religious habit on the following November 10; on Sunday September 21, 1851, he made the promise of consecrating himself to God with the religious profession; made his religious profession at the Carmelite novitiate of the province of Genoa, Loano, diocese of Albenga, November 12, 1851; he studied philosophy and theology also at Loano, from 1852 to 1856.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1856, at the cathedral of Albenga, by Raffaele Biale, bishop of Albenga (1). He celebrated his first mass on Christmas Day, at the church of S. Anna, in Genoa. In 1857, he returned to Loano, began his apostolic ministry and continued his literary studies. In November 1858, he became lector of philosophy and published Compendio della vita di S. Giovanni della Croce. On November 9, 1858, he was sent to the convent of S. Anna, Genoa, where he remained until 1868; he taught mathematics and natural science at the Royal School for naval cadets, Genoa, where he distinguished himself for his culture and didactic ability. He was already considered as a tireless student and scholar, as well as an ascetic who, despite the influence he was having, would always sleep on the floor. In 1870, he was called to Rome by the superior general of his order, Father Domenico di San Giuseppe, to be his theologian at the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; he returned from Rome in September 1870, when Pope Pius IX had to suspend the council sine die because of the occupation of Rome by Italian troops. Elected procurator general of his order on April 21, 1872, at the convent of S. Maria della Scala. Elected superior general of his order, October 1881; because of the hostility of the Italian government, the superior general took the title of commissary general; reelected, May 11, 1889, at the convent of S. Anna, Genoa; during his tenure as superior general, he visited the provinces of Austria, Bavaria, France, Belgium, England, and Ireland, and the Carmelite missions in Syria. Consultor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, July 10, 1884. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1888. Received from the pope the decoration of the golden cross of Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice on December 30, 1888. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, April 12, 1889. Apostolic examiner of the Roman clergy, February 3, 1890.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Petra, March 22, 1892. Consecrated, March 27, 1892, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Albano and vicar general of Rome, assisted by Antonio Aiuti, titular archbishop of Acrida, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, and by Augusto Berlucca, titular bishop of Elenopoli. Named internuncio in Brazil on April 19, 1892; arrived in Brazil on June 3, 1892; presented his credentials to the president of Brazil the following June 13. He played an important role in the mediation between the different factions during the civil war that raged in the State of São Paulo. On October 16, 1895, he received the telegram promoting him to the cardinalate. Farewell visit to the president of Brazil, October 21, 1895; departed for Genoa on the ship "Nord-America", October 25, 1895; arrived in Genoa, November 7; left for Rome, November 11.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received red hat and title of S. Maria della Scala, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, December 2, 1895. It was unusual for an internuncio to be promoted to the cardinalate. Member of the cardinalitial commission for the administration of the possessions of the Holy See and of the church of S. Gioacchino, January 1, 1896. President of the commission of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars "pro revisione delle Costitutzioni degli Istituti di voti simplici", February 21, 1896. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, December 1, 1896. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1896 to April 19, 1897. Member of the cardinalitial commission for the revision of the constitutions of the Order of the Friars Minor for their reunification in one religious family, February 13, 1897. Member of the commission for the reform of the Apostolic Datary, June 16, 1897. Member of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, November 14, 1898. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, November 20, 1899 until July 29, 1902. Member of the cardinalitial commission "Pro eligendis episcopis Italiae", January 3, 1900. The pope entrusted him with an apostolic visitation to Lebanon. President of the Commission to Examine the Constitutions of the new Congregations. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and Oriental Rites, July 29, 1902 until February 26, 1916, when, because of serious illness was relieved from the post by Pope Benedict XV and succeeded by Cardinal Giulio Serafini as pro-prefect. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, 1902-1916. After the death of Cardinal Parocchi on January 15, 1903, he was named protector of the Order of the Carmelites Discalced on the following January 21 took possession the following April 19. Member of the cardinalitial coetus "Pro unione Ecclesiarum dissidentuim", January 23, 1903. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Member of the commission "Pro Jure canonico colligendo et codificando", April2, 1904. In 1906, he neared death after suffering from an acute bout of pneumonia. Member of the SS.CC. Consistorial and of Religious, October 20, 1908. On December 30, 1909, he was named protector in Rome of Collegios of Ireland, of Scotland, and of North America. Protector of the new Collegio Polacco in Rome, August 25, 1910. Relator of the cause of beatification the Venerable Servant of God Teresa di Gesù Bambino (Little Flower), April 12, 1911. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. On September 25, 1915, fainted in his office and fell, striking his head on the floor, suffering a slight concussion of the brain. He lived the simple life of a monk. Although he lived in a palace overlooking the Forum of Trajan, he led a modest life. His apartment was furnished like that in which he slept during the years when he was still a student (2).
Death. Sunday March 19, 1916, at 3:45 p.m., of progressive senile anemia, after having survived his last weeks through the stimulus of injections, at the palace of Propaganda Fide, piazza di Spagna, in Rome. During his final illness he was under the care of Doctors Enrico Zandotti and Vincenzo Rocchi. Monsignor Cattaneo administered him the viaticum. He was assisted by the father general of the order; Father N. Guglielmo, his confessor; and Monsignor Haver, his private secretary. The reading of the rogito was done by Monsignor Alfonso Carinci. The solemn exequies took place on Tuesday March 21, 1916, at 10 a.m., at the church of S. Maria della Scala, his title. The mass was celebrated by Rinaldo Rousset, O.C.D., archbishop of Reggio Calabria; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Present were sixteen cardinals. Buried in the chapel of the Carmelite Order in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On March 21, 1966, his remains were transferred to the chapel of S. Giovanni Battista in the church of S. Maria della Scala, in the Trastevere neighborhood, Rome (3).
Bibliography. Carattino, Angelico. Profilo del Card. Girolamo M. Gotti, Carmelitano Scalzo. Savona : [s.n.], 1986. (Quaderni di Storia del Carmelo Ligure ; n. 15; Variation: Quaderni di Storia del Carmelo Ligure ; n. 15); LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 437-439; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 38, 55, 63 and 449; Villiers, Cosme de Saint Étienne de. Bibliotheca Carmelitana, notis criticis et dissertationibus illustrata. 2 v. in 1. Edited by Gabriel Wessels. Romae, In aedibus Collegii S. Alberti, 1927. Responsibility: curâ et labore unius è Carmelitis Provinciae Turoniae collecta. Aurelianis, Excudebant M. Couret de Villeneuve & J. Rouzeau-Montaut, Regis, Serenissimi Aurelianensium Ducis, Regiique Aurelianensis Collegii Typographi & Bibliopolae, M. DCCLII. Cum Approbatione et Privilegio Regis, I, col. XXXI-XXXII.
Webgraphy. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography, in English, Canada Space Reference; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by C.M. Fiorentino, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; photographs, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi., III, 449; Wessels, Bibliotheca Carmelitana, I, col. XXXI; and his biography in Polish, linked above. Carattino, Profilo del Card. Girolamo M. Gotti, Carmelitano Scalzo, p. 1; and Leblanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 437; and his biography in Italian by Fiorentino, linked above, indicate that he was ordained on December 22, 1856.
(2) According to Wessels, Bibliotheca Carmelitana, I, col. XXXI-XXXII, his daily routine was to wake up at 6 a.m.; after meditation, he celebrated mass; then, he worked until noon; he ate a sober lunch and took a walk in the garden; then, he resumed work until midnight. Each week he went to the General Curia for confession.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in his funeral monument, taken from Carattino, Profilo del Card. Girolamo M. Gotti, Carmelitano Scalzo, p. 48:
Birth. July 27, 1829, Paray-le Monial, diocese of Autun, France.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Autun.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1854. Parochial vicar in the diocese of Autun. In the archdiocese of Aix, pastoral work; secretary to the archbishop; professor of dogmatic theology and dean of the theological faculty.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Euroa and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Clermont Ferrand, July 15, 1878, Consecrated, August 24, 1878, cathedral of Aix, by Théodore-Augustine Forcade, archbishop of Aix, assisted by Julien Meirieux, bishop of Digne, and by Adolphe Perraud, bishop of Autun. Succeeded to the see of Clermont Ferrand, December 24, 1879. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bourges, January 19, 1893.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received red hat and title of SS. Trintà al Monte Pincio, June 25, 1896.
Death. December 16, 1896, Bourges. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bourges.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 209-210.
Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in French, archdiocese of Bourges; brief biographical entry, in French, Wikipedia.
Birth. November 20, 1827, Bologna. Son of Giuseppe Manara (+ post 1857), originally from Imola, who was a teacher of drawing and painter. Received the sacrament of confirmation, November 11, 1835.
Education. He studied at the Trisi de Lugo school (where his father taught) and then at the Pio Seminary in Rome, where he received a doctorate in theology (July 1851); then, studied at the Seminary of Bologna, where he earned a doctorate in theology on July 11, 1851); and at the University of Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on July 6, 1855.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1850. In the archdiocese of Bologna, 1853-1879, chaplain of the major hospital, 1853; judge of ecclesiastical causes; counselor and chancellor of the ecclesiastical curia; pro-vicar general. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ancona e Umana, May 12, 1879. Consecrated, May 22, 1879, church of the Immaculate Conception, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, assisted by Giulio Lenti, titular archbishop of Side, auxiliary of Roma, and by Placido Schiaffino, O.S.B., titular bishop of Nissa, president of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received red hat and title of S. Pancrazio, December 2, 1895. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Promoted to archbishop when the see of Ancona was elevated to archepiscopal rank, September 14, 1904.
Death. February 15, 1906, Ancona. Exposed in the archiepiscopal cathedral of Ancona and buried in the city cemetery of Ancona.
Birth. September 5, 1834, Barcelona, Spain. His father was a cobbler first in Condal Street and then in Canuda Street in Barcelona. His uncle, Ramón Casañas y Casañas (died in 1868), was parish priest of Nuestra Señora del Pi. He was baptized in the parish church of Santa María del Pino, Barcelona, on the following day of his birth.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Barcelona; in 1848, he brilliantly defended his thesis in philosophy; he also studied at the University of Valencia, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1857.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1858. In the diocese of Barcelona, curate economous of the parish of Santa María del Pino from 1869 until 1876; professor and rector of its seminary; canon administrator of the cathedral chapter. Appointed apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Urgel, January 18, 1879.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ceramus, February 7, 1879 (1). Consecrated, March 23, 1879, cathedral of Barcelona, by José María Urquinaona y Vidot, bishop of Barcelona, assisted by Tomás Sivilla y Gener, bishop of Gerona, and by Tomás Costa y Fornaguera, bishop of Lérida. Transferred to the see of Urgel, September 22, 1879. Acting apostolic administrator of Andorra, September 22, 1879 until July 27, 1901. Named promotor of the canonical process for the beatification of José Oriol in 1879. In that same year, elected by the bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Tarragona and named by King Alfonso XII, he was proclaimed senator.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received red hat and title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, June 25, 1896. Member of the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Council, Rites, and Ceremonial on June 25, 1896. Protector of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Urgel in 1901. Transferred to the see of Barcelona, April 18 , 1901 (2). Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. By special favor from Pope Pius X, he and his successors were granted the pallium by decree of April 11, 1904; he received the pallium by procurator on November 21, 1904. On December 24, 1905, an anarchist made an attempt on his life in the cloister of the cathedral.
Death. October 27, 1908, at 5:30 p.m., of a syncope, surrounded by all the members of his episcopal family, in Barcelona. Exposed in the cathedral of Barcelona, where the funeral took place with the attendance of a large multitude; a royal decree granted him the honors of captain general; his body was buried in the cathedral of Barcelona.
Bibliography. Anzizu, Eulàlia. De santa memòria : notes hagiográfiques del Emm. Senyor Dr. D. Salvador Casañas y Pagés, Cardenal-Bisbe de Barcelona. Barcelona : Impr. de Francisco Altés y Alabart, 1909; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 47; "Em. Casanas y Pagés (Salvador)' in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1907. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1906, p. 140; "Casanas y Pagés (Salvador), év. de Barcelona" in "Nécrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1909. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1908, p. 698; Más y Oliver, Francisco de Paula. Elogio fúnebre del... Cardenal... Don Salvador Casañas y Pagés, Obispo de Barcelona. Barcelona : La Hormiga de Oro, 1909; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 38, 52, 141, 196 and 576.
Webgraphy. Biography by Vicente Cárcel Ortí, in Spanish, Diccionario Biográfico Español, DB~e; his photograph and biography, in English, Grupo Enciclopèdia Catalana; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; Atemptat contra el cardenal Casañas (24-12-1905), in Catalan, Ateneu Llibertari Estel Negre; postal stamp in his honor issued by the principality of Andorra, PortaleStoria.
(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 196; Echeverría, Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 , p. 47, indicates that he was elected on February 28, 1879.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 141; Echeverría, Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 , p. 47, indicates that he was transferred on April 19, 1901.
Birth. July 25, 1833, Santiago, Chile. Son of Juan Ramón Casanova Opazo and Isabel Casanova Salinas.
Education. Entered the Conciliar Seminary of Santiago, Santiago on July 10, 1846; taught humanities at the seminary from 1852 until 1856. Received the diploma of law in 1851.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1856. Professor of the Seminary of Santiago, April 8, 1857 until 1868; taught philosophy, theology, morals and canon law. On July 22, 1860 he founded the Academia Literaria de San Agustín, where a large number of the future ecclesiastical writers, orators, and polemicists as well as Chilean parliamentarians were formed. Professor of the Faculty of Theology of the University of Chile, August 1859. Traveled to Europe for a year, 1865-1866; he had an audience with Pope Pius IX. Traveled to Perú as member of the commission in charge of repatriating the remains of General Bernardo O'Higgins, which arrived in Valparaíso on January 13, 1869. Pastor of the parish of Santísimo Salvador in Valparaíso and vicar foráneo, June 22, 1868. Founded the Seminary of Valparaíso, June 2, 1869. Ecclesiastical governor of Valparaíso, November 2, 1872. When Archbishop Rafael Valentín Valdivieso of Santiago died on June 8, 1878, there was a conflict over the appointment of his successor; it lasted until Pope Leo XIII accepted the nomination of Msgr. Casanova made by President José Manuel Balmaceda, who had been his student at Academia San Agustín.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Santiago, December 3, 1886. Consecrated, January 30, 1887, cathedral of Santiago, by Joaquín Larraín Gandarillas, titular bishop of Martiropoli, auxiliary and vicar capitular of Santiago, assisted by Monsignor Jorge Montes, archdeacon, and by Monsignor Miguel Prado, canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter. One of his first decisions was to send two young seminarians, Gilberto Fuenzalida Guzmán and José María Caro Rodríguez, future first cardinal of Chile, to study at Colegio Pío Latino Americano of Rome. Established the Catholic University of Santiago on June 21, 1888. Also, he founded the Instituto de Humanidades and the Escuela Normal de Preceptores; and ordered the establishment of parochial schools. In a letter dated October 25, 1888, he suggested to Pope Leo XIII the convenience of calling a continental council of all the peoples of Latin America; the letter marked the beginning of the process that culminated with the celebration of the Plenary Council of Latin America in Rome in 1899; dean of the archbishops who attended the council; he presided the first solemn session on May 28, 1899 and the first general congregation on May 29; towards the end of that congregation, he had to leave because of illness, leaving the presidency to Bernardo Herrera Restrepo, archbishop of Bogotá. During the civil war of 1890, he tried to mediate between the parties and avoid bloodshed; he opposed the participation of the clergy in favor of any of the two sides. He visited the ninety parishes of the archdiocese and established thirty two new ones; he restored the cathedral of Santiago, adding to it the chapel of the Most Holy Sacrament; brought to Chile several religious orders such as the Salesians, the Piarists, the Discalced Carmelites, and the Little Sisters of the Poor. Celebrated in 1895 the synod that set up the pastoral guidelines for the archdiocese. In 1898, he conducted the second pastoral visitation to the archdiocese. In 1904, he organized the First National Eucharistic Congress, which was celebrated the following year.
Cardinalate. Pope Leo XIII planned to promote Archbishop Casanova to the cardinalate, but several newspapers and members of the Church of Perú objected, alleging that the primate of South America was the archbishop of Lima and he was the one who should be named cardinal; the Holy See abandoned the idea to avoid a conflict between Perú and Chile (1); they also objected to the celebration of the council in Santiago and, eventually, it was held in Rome. In his last years, he suffered a nervous breakdown that weakened him enormously, eventually confining him to bed for the last month of his life.
Death. May 16, 1908, in Santiago. Buried in the crypt of the archbishopric in the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago (2).
Bibliography. Gaudiano, Pedro. "Presidentes, relatores y miembros del Concilio Plenario de América Latina", in Los Ultimos Cien Años de la Evangelización en América Latina : centenario del Concilio Plenario de América Latina : simposio histórico, Ciudad del Vaticano, 21-25 de junio de 1999 : actas = Os Ultimos Cem Anos da Evangelização na América Latina : centenário do Concmlio Plenário da Amirica Latina. Edición: Pontificia Comisió para América Latina; ccordinació, Luis Ferrogiaro and Victor Manuel ochoa Cadavid. Ciudad del Vaticano : Libreria editrice vaticana, Year: 2000, pp. 733-784; Ibacache, Misael Camus. "La préparation et la convocation du concile plénier d'Amérique latine célébré à Rome en 1899, in: Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique, (1998), 66-82; Retamal Avila, Julio. Monsñor Mariano Casanova Casanova, 1886-1908 : tercer arzobispo de Santiago. Santiago : Editorial Salesiana, 1981. (Serie Arzobispo de Santiago); Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 314.
Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Spanish; La preparación del Concilio Plenario Latinoamericano según la documentación vaticana by Pedro Gaudiano, in Spanish; Diocese of Valparaíso, in Spanish; summary of El Concilio Plenario de América Latina by Antón Pazos and Diego Ricardo, in Spanish; photgraph and brief biographical data, in Spanish, at the bottom of the page; pastoral letter of Archbishop Casanova on La condición social de los obreros, September 18, 1891, in Spanish; Catholic University of Santiago, in Spanish.
(1) Ibacache, "La préparation et la convocation du concile plénier d'Amérique latine", Revue d'histoire
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
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