Birth. November 29, 1888, at 1:30 a.m., Serra, parish of Santa Martinha, Lousado, archdiocese of Braga, Portugal. Son of Avelino Gonçalves Cerejeira, small artisan and farmer, and Joaquina do Sacramento de Jesus Rebelo. He was baptized on December 3, 1888, by Father João Baptista da Costa Pessoa, in the parish church of Lousado. His godparents were Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, paternal uncle, after whom he was named; and Carolina Sacramento, maternal aunt. He had four sisters: Carolina, Deolinda, Maria and Augusta; and three brothers: Júlio, a physician; Joaquim, a lawyer; and António, an official at the University of Porto.
Education. He received his primary education at the parish of Santa Marianha, Lousado; from 1899 until 1905, he studied at the Seminary-Lyceum of Guimarães; in 1905, he entered the Lyceum "Alexandre Herculano", in Porto, to complete the courses in letters; from 1906 until 1909, he frequented the Conciliar Seminary of S. Pedro e S. Paulo of Braga; later, he attended the University of Coimbra, where he studied in the Faculty of Theology from 1909 until 1911; in those years, he met António de Oliveira Salazar, future prime minister and president of Portugal, with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. On October 1, 1910, he received the first tonsure; on the following day, October 2, he received the four minor orders and the subdiaconate; and on December 17 of that same year, he was ordained a deacon. In 1911, when the new Portuguese Republic closed the Faculty of Theology, he matriculated in the Faculty of Law; and in the academic year 1912-1913, he passed to the Faculty of Letters (section of Historical and Geographical Sciences), established to replace the one of Theology.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 1, 1911, Braga, by Manuel Bátista da Cunha, archbishop of Braga. He celebrated his first mass in the parish church of Santa Marianha, Lousado, where he had been baptized. He started collaborating in the newspaper A Palavra; and in, 1912, he became the first director of O Imparcial. Faculty member of the University of Coimbra, 1911-1928. On November 11, 1916, he was named provisional assistant of the chair of Medieval History at the Faculty of Letters. On January 30, 1918, he obtained a doctorate in history with the thesis "O Renascimento em Portugal - Clenardo". On November 5, 1919, he became ordinary professor of Historical Sciences; he continued his academic career until his promotion to the episcopate occupying several chairs. In 1921, he became socio of the Royal Academy of History of Madrid. Member of the Permanent Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses, December 7, 1925.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mitilene and appointed suffragan of Lisbon, March 23, 1928. Consecrated, June 17, 1928, at the cathedral of Coimbra, by Luis Coelho da Silva, bishop of Coimbra, assisted by José Alves Correia da Silva, bishop of Leiria, and by António Antunes, titular bishop of Retimo and coadjutor of Coimbra. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. Named vicar capitular of Lisbon, August 5, 1929. Promoted to the patriarchate of Lisbon, November 18, 1929; he was enthroned on February 2, 1930. He was the fourteenth patriarch of Lisbon.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, December 19, 1929. He was then the youngest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. He returned to Lisbon on January 30, 1930. Papal legate to the National Congress of Prayer's Apostolate, Braga, July 15, 1930; to the centennial celebrations of St. Anthony, Lisbon, June 13, 1931; to the First National Missionary Congress, Lisbon, September 4, 1931; to the centennial celebrations of St. Elizabeth of Portugal, Coimbra, June 24, 1936. He founded the seminaries of Olivais, 1931; Almada, 1935; and Santarém, 1941. In 1938, he established Rádio Renascença. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. In 1940, he obtained the establishment of a concordat between Portugal and the Holy See. Papal legate to the consecration of new cathedral of Lourenço Marques, Mozambique, May 28, 1944; to the 4th centennial celebration of the death of St. John of God, Portugal and Spain, September 23, 1950; to the 4th centennial celebrations of St. Francis Xavier's death, Goa, India, October 30, 1952; to the National Marian Congress, Braga, May 24, 1954. In September 1946, he presided over the blessing of the Catholic University of São Paulo, Brazil. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the dedication of new Brazilian capital, Brasília, March 2, 1960. On April 23, 1961, he presided over the ceremony for the restoration of the parish church of Lousado, where he had celebrated his first mass fifty years earlier. Cardinal protoprete, August 6, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of Our Lady of Monte Sameiro, May 20, 1964. He founded the Catholic University of Portugal, which was inaugurated in 1967. He also founded the Seminário dos Olivais. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He and Cardinals Achille Liénart and Eugène Tisserant were the last cardinal electors created by Pope Pius XI. Resigned the pastoral government of the patriarchate, May 10, 1971. He wrote and published numerous works (1).
Death. August 2, 1977, in Casa do Bom Pastor, Lisbon. The funeral was celebrated in the patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon. He was buried in the tomb of the patriarchs, in the church of São Vicente de Fora (2). He had written his testament in 1950, in which he expressed his wish to be buried in the Seminary of Olivais, em campa rasa; his wish was not kept by the patriarchate. He was the last surviving cardinal of Pope Pius XI.
Bibliography. Brandão, Pedro Ramos. Salazar-Cerejeira : a "força" da igreja : cartas do cardeal-patriarca ao presidente do conselho. Lisboa : Notícias Editorial, 2002; Cabral, António. Um alto príncipe da Igreja : dom Manuel Cerejeira, Patriarca de Lisboa. Lisboa : Livraria Popular de Francisco Franco, 1941. Note: "Lisboa -- 25 de Julho de 1941". Other title: Dom Manuel Cerejeira, Patriarca de Lisboa; Dutra Faria, Francisco de Paula. Navegação de paz e de glória. Lisboa : Agéncia Geral das Colónias, 1945. Note: At head of title: República Portuguesa. Ministério das Colónias./ "Passos da viagem que fés as Africas de Portugal Sua Eminéncia o Cardeal Patriarca de Lisboa, Senhor Dom Manuel II"; Matos, Luís Salgado de. "D. Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira (1929-1971)" in Os patriarcas de Lisboa. Coordenação D. Carlos Azevedo, Sandra Costa Saldanha, António Pedro Boto de Oliveira. Palavra de apresentação do Cardeal Patriarca, D. José da Cruz Policarpo. Lisboa : Centro Cultural do Patriarcado de Lisboa; Alêtheia Editores, 2009, p. 143-160; Moreira das Neves, Francisco. Cardeal Cerejeira : o homem e a obra : no centenário do seu nascimento. Lisboa : Rei dos Livros, 1988; Moreira das Neves, Francisco. O cardeal Cerejeira, patriarca de Lisboa. Lisboa : Pro Domo, 1948. Note: Issued in 11 pts., 1945-1948; Pensamento e obra do Cardeal Cerejeira : no centenário do seu nascimento. Lisboa : Universidade católica portuguesa, Centro de estudos de história religiosa, 1990. Note : Numéro de : Lusitania sacra (1990) 2a serie:tomo 2; Pimentel, Irene Flunser. Cardeal Cerejeira : o príncipe da Igreja. Lisboa : A esfera dos livros, 2010; Policarpo, José da Cruz. Cardeal Cerejeira. Lisboa : Editorial Notícias, 2002. Responsibility: D. José da Cruz Policarpo, Cardeal-patriarca de Lisboa; Policarpo, José da Cruz. Cardeal Cerejeira : fotobiografia. Lisboa : Notícias Editorial, 2002; Régo, Raul. Para um diálogo com o Sr. Cardeal Patriarca. Lisboa : O Autor, 1968. Note: Letters from Régo to Gonçalves Cerejeira; Salazar, António de Oliveira ; Cerejeira, Manuel Gonçalves. Correspondéncia (1928-1968). Edited by Rita Almeida de Carvalho. Lisboa : Temas e Debates : Círcuo de Leitores, 2010. Responsibility: António de Oliveira Salazar, Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira ; Rita Almeida de Carvalho, organização.
Webgraphy. Photographs and biography, in Portuguese, Fundação Cardeal Cerejeira; brief biography, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses, under "D. MANUEL GONÇALVES CEREJEIRA - 14º Cardeal Patriarca de Lisboa", patriarcado de Lisboa; photographs, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; O Cardeal e o Estado Novo: um casamento difícil by José Manuel Fernandes, ípsilon, 15.04.2010.
(1) Among them A Igreja e o pensamento contemprâneo (1924) Do valor histórico de Fernão Lopes (1925); A alma de São Francisco
(1927); A idade Média (1936); Obras Pastorais (from 1936), in seven volumes; and Cartas aos Novos (1936) and Vinte Anos de Coimbra (1943), both a
compilation of the articles he published in the review Estudos da CADC.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. March 2, 1876, Rome, Italy. Third of the four children of Filippo Pacelli and Virginia Graziosi. The other siblings were Giuseppa, Francesco and Elisabetta. He was baptized by his uncle, Father Giuseppe Pacelli, on March 4, 1876, in the parish church of Ss. Celso e Giuliano, Rome; his baptismal name was Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni.
Education. Studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare".
Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1899, Rome. Further studies, 1899-1901. Staff member of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1901-1911. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, March 7, 1911; pro-secretary, June 20, 1912; secretary, February 1, 1914.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardes and appointed nuncio in Bavaria, April 20, 1917. Consecrated, May 13, 1917, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Benedict XV, assisted by Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, titular archbishop of Tebe di Grecia, papal almoner, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Opus Iustitiae Pax. Nuncio in Germany, June 22, 1920.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, December 16, 1929; received red hat and title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, December 19, 1929. Secretary of State, February 9, 1930 until February 10, 1939. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 25, 1930. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, March 10, 1932. Papal legate to the 32nd International Eucharistic Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 16, 1934. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 1, 1935. Papal legate to the jubilar celebration of the Redemption, Lourdes, France, April 12, 1935. Apostolic visitor to the twelve ecclesiastical provinces in the United States of America, October 1936. Papal legate for the blessing of St. Thérèse de Lisieux basilica, Lisieux, June 29, 1937. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 13, 1937 until his election to the papacy. Papal legate to the 34th International Eucharistic Congress, Budapest, Hungary, May 12, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939 and was elected pope.
Papacy. Elected, March 2, 1939. Took the name Pius XII. Crowned, March 12, 1939, by Cardinal Camillo Caccia Dominioni, protodeacon of S. Maria in Domnica. By the apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus, he proclaimed the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in body and soul into heaven. Published forty one encyclicals. Created fifty six cardinals in two consistories.
Death. October 9, 1958, at 3:50 a.m., of an acute heart failure brought on by a sudden myocardial infarction, Castelgandolfo. Buried on October 13, 1958 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.
Beatification. The process of beatification was started by Pope Paul VI on November 18, 1965, during the last session of the Second Vatican Council, together with the cause of Pope John XXIII. On December 19, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI authorized the promulgation of the decree concerning his heroic virtues.
Bibliography. --Alvarez, David J. ; Graham, Robert Andrew. Papauté et espionnage nazi : 1939-1945. Translated by Yolanda Fraga. Paris : Beauchesne, 1999. (Bibliothèque Beauchesne. Religions, société, politique ; 35);
--Bargellini, Piero. Pius XII. The angelic shepherd. New York : Good Shepherd, 1950;
--Bayern, Konstantin von. Der Papst : ein Lebensbild. Bad Wôrishofen : Kindler und Schiermeyer, 1952. Note: "Erschien zuerst in der illustrierten Zeitschrift Revue";
--Blet, Pierre. Pius XII and the Second World War : according to the Archives of the Vatican. Uniform Title:Pie XII et la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. Translated by Lawrence J. Johnson. New York : Paulist Press, 1999. Contents: 1. Vatican Diplomacy against the War -- 2. Pius XII, Roosevelt, and Mussolini -- 3. The Pope and the Church in Germany -- 4. The Church in Occupied Poland -- 5. The Victorious Reich -- 6. From a European War to a World War -- 7. Racial Laws and Persecutions -- 8. Deportations in Slovakia and in Croatia -- 9. Romania and Hungary -- 10. The Fate of the Eternal City -- 11. Events in France -- 12. The Last Days of the War;
--Carlen, Claudia. Guide to the documents of Pius XII, 1939-1949. Westminster, Md., Newman Press, 1951;
--Chélini Jean, L'Eglise sous Pie XII. La tourmente (1939-1945). Paris, Fayard, 1983;
--Chélini, Jean. L'Eglise sous Pie XII. L'après-guerre (1945-1958). Paris : Fayard, 1989;
--Chenaux, Philippe. Pie XII : diplomate et pasteur. Paris : Cerf, 2003. (Histoire; Biographie);
--Cushing, Richard. Pope Pius XII. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1959;
--Dal Bello, Mario. La congiura di Hitler. Il rapimento di Pio XII. Roma: Città Nuova, 2014. (Misteri Svelati);
--Dalin, David G. The myth of Hitler's Pope : how Pope Pius XII rescued Jews from the Nazis. Washington, DC : Regnery Pub. ; Lanham, MD : Distributed by National book Network, 2005. Contents: Myth of Hitler's Pope and why it matters -- Popes in defense of the Jews -- Future Pope -- Righteous gentile: Pope Pius XII and the holocaust -- --Liberal media and the culture wars -- Hitler's Mufti: Muslim anti-semitism and the continuing Islamic war against the Jews -- John Paul II and papal condemnation of anti-semitism;
--Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II;
--I "fogli di udienza" del cardinale Eugenio Pacelli segretario di Stato, i (1930). A cura di Sergio Pagano, Marcel Chappin, Giovanni Coco. Città del Vaticano : Archivio Segreto Vaticano, 2010. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani, 72);
--Friedländer, Saul. Pius XII and the Third Reich : a documentation. New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 1966. Note: The Mazal Holocaust Collection. Responsibility: translated from the French and German by Charles Fullman;
--Gallagher, Charles R. Vatican secret diplomacy : Joseph P. Hurley and Pope Pius XII. New Haven : Yale University Press, ©2008;
--Halecki, Oscar. Eugenio Pacelli : pope of peace. New York: Creative Age Press, Inc., 1951;
--Hatch, Alden and Seamus Walshe. Crown of glory : The life of Pope Pius XII. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1957;
--In difesa di Pio XII. Le ragioni della storia. A cura di Giovanni Maria Vian. Venezia : Marsilio, 2009;
--Kruzman, Dan. A special mission. Hitler's secret plot to seize the Vatican and kidnap Pope Pius XII.. Cambridge, MA : Da Capo Press, 2007;
. --McGoldrick, Patricia M. "New perspectives on Pius XII and Vatican financial transactions during the Second World War", The Historical Journal, 55 (2012), 1029-1048;
--McInerny, Ralph. The Defamtion of Pius XII. South Bend, IN : St. Augustine's Press, 2001;
--Marchione, Margherita. Crusade of charity : Pius XII and POWs (1939-1945). Mahwah, N.J. : Paulist Press, 2006;
--Marchione, Margherita. Pope Pius XII, architect for peace. Mahwah, N.J. : Paulist Press, 2000;
--Marchione, Margherita. Pio XII : La verità' ti farà libero. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2008;
--McInerny, Ralph. The defamation of Pius XII. South Bend, Ind. : St. Augustine Press, 2001;
--Napolitano, Matteo Luigi ; Tornielli, Andrea. Il papa che salvò gli ebrei : dagli archivi del Vaticano tutta la verità su Pio XII. Casale Monferrato (Alessandria) : Piemme, 2004. Note: On Eugenio Pacelli (1876-1958), Pope Pius XII, and his efforts to protect Jews during World War II./ M.L. Napolitano at the University of Urbino;
--O'Carroll, Michael. Pius XII. Greatness Dishonoured. A Documented Study. Chicago : Franciscan Herald Press, 1980;
--Pfister, Pierre. Pius XII. The life and work of a great pope. New York : Studio, 1955;
Pontificio Comitato di Scienze Storiche. Pio XII. L'uomo e il pontificato (1876- 1958). Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2008;
--Riebling, Mark. Iglesia de espías. La guerra secreta del papa contra Hitler. Barcelona : Editorial Stella Maris, 2016;
--Schmid, Johanna. Papst Pius XII. begegnen. Augsburg : Sankt-Ulrich-Verl., 2001. (Zeugen des Glaubens);
--Smit, Jan Olav. Angelic Shepherd. The life of Pope Pius XII. Adapted into English by Reverend James H. Vanderveldt, O.F.M. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1950;
--Tardini, Domenico Cardinal. Memories of Pius XII. Translated by Rosemary Goldie. Westminster : Newman, 1961;
--Tornielli, Andrea. Pio XII : Eugenio Pacelli : un uomo sul trono di Pietro. Milano : Mondadori, 2007. (Le scie);
--Tornielli, Andrea. Pio XII : il papa degli ebrei. Casale Monferrato : Piemme, 2001;
--Traniello, Francesco. "Pio XII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 632-645.
Webgraphy. Portrait, arms and documents, in several languages, The Vatican; photographs and biography by Frank Coppa, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Francesco Traniello, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 84 (2015), Treccani; his portrait, lasantissimaeucaristia.blogspot.pt; his coronation as pope, video, in English, Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome; his genealogy, A3, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church; images and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Moscow's Assault on the Vatican by Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review, January 25, 2007 7:40 AM; Messe en hommage à Pie XII, KTOTV, emission du 09/10/2008, published on May 30, 2012, YouTube; Requiem SS. Pii XII P.M., YouTube, uploaded on Oct 7, 2009; Solemnis Beatificatio Pii X declarata est a SS. Pio XII P.M., YouTube uploaded on Nov 21, 2009; Parole e aiuti per salvare gli ebrei. Nell'archivio di monsignor Palatucci le direttive di Pio XII, L'Osservatore Romano, 08 aprile 2011; Quelle famiglie ebree che Pio XII fece nascondere in monastero. La sollecitudine di Papa Pacelli documentata nel giornale della Casa di Villa Lante, L'Osservatore Romano,12 maggio 2011; 06/ 9/2011 Pius XII, the sensitivity of Pastor Angelicus by Andrea Tornelli, in Italian, Vatican Insider, 06/9/2011; Pio XII Santo, YouTube, uploaded on Jul 6, 2011; B.M.V. Assumptionis Definitio Dogmatica declarata est a viva voce Pii XII P.M. Ex Cathedra Romae , YouTube, uploaded on Aug 18, 2011; Pius XII Defensor Civitatis!, YouTube, uploaded on Nov 10, 2011; Pastor Angelicus Piux XII - Full Movie, YouTube, uploaded on Dec 20, 2011; Benedizione pasquale di Pio XII , YouTube, published on Jul 30, 2012; Cardenal Pacelli, futuro Pío XII, llega a Buenos Aires - 1934, YouTube, published on Nov 23, 2012; Preparazione del conclave del 1939 antico rito elezione ed incoronazione di Pio XII 02/03/1939, YouTube, published on Mar 10, 2013; Il pontificato di Pio XII sotto il segno di Maria, in Italian, by Enrico Lenzi, Avvenire, 12 ottubro 2013; Gumpel: Pio XII voleva un Concilio by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire, 15 novembre 2013; Pacelli aiutò a creare una "homeland" ebraica in Palestina, Vatican Insider, 21/03/2014; Pope Paul Unveils Monument To Pope Pius Xii (1964), British Pathé, published on Apr 13, 2014, YouTube; E Hitler ordinó: «Arrestate Pio XII» by Marco Roncalli, Avvenire, 9 maggio 2014; "Al pobre Pío XII le han tirado encima de todo", lamenta el Papa Francisco, ACI, Madrid, 13 Jun. 14; Pio XII, piø storia e meno leggenda in attesa degli archivi by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 3/10/2014; Ebrei nei conventi, l'ordine di Pio XII by Giovanni Grasso, Avvenire, 17 gennaio 2015; Pasado histórico de Pío XII respalda su camino a la santidad, afirma historiador by Marta Jiménez, ACI, 31 Ene. 15 / 04:05 pm; Morto lo storico inglese che voleva Pio XII fra i Giusti by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 5/02/2015; Contro Hitler e Mussolini L'azione di Pio XII e della sua Chiesa durante la Shoah, L'Osservatore Romano, 28 marzo 2015; Pope Pius XII Symposium - 1958, British Movietone, published on Jul 21, 2015, YouTube; Pío XII: Si hay posibles milagros, ¿por qué no avanza el proceso de beatificación?, ACI, Vaticano, 13 Ene. 16 / 11:43 am; Il voto di Pio XII. Il 2 marzo 1876 nasceva Eugenio Pacelli, L'Osservatore Romano, 02 marzo 2016; Pío XII apoyó en secreto complots para derrocar a Adolf Hitler, revela libro by Kevin J. Jones, ACI/EWTN Noticias, Washington, D.C., 07 Mar. 16 / 01:18 pm; Al di là della censura. La Santa Sede e le novità tecnologiche della comunicazione by Dario Edoardo Viganò, L'Osservatore Romano, 24 marzo 2016; Church of Spies: an inside look into the Vatican's plot to take down Hitler, Rome Reports, 2016-04-09; Anche se crollasse San Pietro by Marc Lindijer, L'Osservatore Romano, 13 giugno 2016; Quella notte del 1944. Un'inedita testimonianza sul piano nazista per sequestrare Pio XII by Antonio Nogara, L'Osservatore Romano, 05 luglio 2016; Nazis tenían "plan avanzado" para secuestrar al Papa Pío XII, ACI, Roma, 06 Jul. 16 / 05:39 pm; Hitler's Pope kidnap plot unveiled in incredible documents released by the Vatican by Allan Hall, Mirror, 22:37, 7 Jul 2016; Pacelli e la saggia diplomazia nell’epoca dei totalitarismi by Luca Rolandi, Vatican Insider, ultima modifica il 17/06/2015 alle ore 17:57; The end of the ‘Hitler’s Pope’ myth by Fr Leo Chamberlain OSB, Catholic Herald, posted Thursday, 9 Mar 2017; Nueva evidencia histórica derriba leyenda negra sobre Pío XII by María Ximena Rondón, ACI, Roma, 14 Mar. 17 / 08:13 pm; Truth Crucified: A Tale of Rabbi Zolli and Pius XII, by Donald DeMarco, National Catholic Register, May 28, 2017; El Papa invita a practicar la misericordia como Pío XII al salvar a judíos de los nazis by Miguel Pérez Pichel, ACI, Vaticano, 05 Jun. 17 / 04:36 am; Il rischio della misericordia, L'Osservatore Romano, 05 giugno 2017; El Papa en Sta. Marta: Pio XII al esconder a los judíos cumplía las obras de misericordia, Zenit, Ciudad del Vaticano 5 Junio 2017; This Marian Pope Popularized Fatima—And It’s Not Who You Think by Joseph Pronechen, National Catholic Register, Aug. 11, 2017; Pius XII saw "Miracle of the Sun" by Antonio Gaspari, The Pilot, Rome, Zenit, 8/11/2017; Brilliant Prophetic Document to Begin October for Victory by Joseph Pronechen, National Catholic Register, Oct. 1, 2017; Pacelli e Fátima. Consacrato vescovo il 13 maggio 1917, fu sepolto il 13 ottobre 1958 by Dominiek Oversteyns, L'Osservatore Romano, 12 ottobre 2017; United in History and Tragedy: JFK and Pope Pius XII by Paul Kengor, National Catholic Register, Nov. 22, 2017; Vatikan: 60. Jahrestag der Enzyklika „Miranda Prorsus", Radio Vatican, 13/12/2017 11:01; The pope of television: The Vatican had a TV service even before Italy did, thanks to this man, Aleteia, Dec 15, 2017; Santa Sede e comunicazione di massa. A sessant'anni dall'enciclica "Miranda prorsus" by Daniele Menozzi, L'Osservatore Romano, 16 dicembre 2017; Le Saint-Siège s’est-il fait le complice du nazisme par son silence sur la Shoah? by Jean Chaunu, aleteia, Vendredi 02 février 2018; Who Knows? The Truth About Pope Pius XI and His Much-Maligned Successor by Roseanne T. Sullivan, Homiletic & Pastoral Review, February 24, 2018; Pie XII a caché des milliers de juifs durant la seconde guerre mondiale by Agnès Pinard Legry, Aleteia, 07 mars 2018; Pio XII, il Pastor Angelicus eletto il giorno del compleanno by Alessandro Di Bussolo, vaticannews.va, Città del Vaticano, 10 marzo 2018, 11:05, with video; Kontrovers: Pius XII. und Hitler by Stefan von Kempis, vaticannews.va, Vatikanstadt, 13 Mai 2018, 07:58, with audio; Pope Pius XII and Mary’s August Mysteries by Stephanie Mann, National Catholic Register, Aug. 15, 2018; Eugenio Pacelli fra modernità e tradizione by Vicente Cárcel Ortí, L'Osservatore Romano, 06 ottobre 2018; Manca solo il miracolo. l punto sulla beatificazione di Pio XII, L'Osservatore Romano, 20 ottubre 2018; Pio XII “ponte” tra due epoche by Andrea Tornielli, L'Osservatore Romano, 02 marzo 2019; Quell’angelo con gli occhiali e le ali spalancate by Andrea Monda, L'Osservatore Romano, 02 marzo 2019; 80th Anniversary of the Election of Pius XII, vaticannews.va, 02 March 2019, 10:30; L'annuncio del Papa: tra un anno l’apertura degli archivi di Pio XII by Domenico Agasso jr., Vatican Insider, 04/03/2019 alle ore 20:14; Riccardi: non c’è nulla da temere dall’apertura degli archivi di Pio XII by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 05/03/2019 alle ore 11:11; Pius XII: Vatican to open secret Holocaust-era archives, BBC, 4 March 2019; El papa Francisco abrirá los archivos secretos sobre el pontificado de Pío XII, El Nuevo Día, Agencia EFE, lunes, 4 de marzo de 2019 - 8:59 AM; Pope Francis Orders Archives of Pius XII’s Entire Pontificate to Be Opened by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Mar. 4, 2019; ¿Y ahora qué dirán los que señalan a Pío XII como el “Papa de Hitler”?, pregunta embajador, ACI Prensa, 5 de marzo de 2019 12:25 pm; Archives de Pie XII : pourquoi l’Église n’a pas peur de l’histoire by Frédéric Le Moal, Aleteia, 06 mars 2019; U.S. Jewish groups react to Vatican decision to release Pius XII archives by Jacob Comello, The Boston Pilot, CNS, Washington, 3/6/2019; Las cifras del Archivo Secreto del Vaticano sobre Pío XII, ACI Prensa, 6 de marzo de 2019 11:04 pm; Con l’apertura delle carte di Pio XII si potrà fare luce sugli aspetti più controversi del pontificato che coincise con guerra e Olocausto by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 06/03/2019 alle ore 22:38; 80th Anniversary of the Coronation of Pope Pius XII, vaticannews.va, 12 March 2019, 10:57, with video; Pius XII and the Jews by Russell Shaw, The Boston Pilot, Wednesday, March 27, 2019; Entrevista: “Gracias a Pío XII, casi un millón de judíos salvados de nazis” by Deborah Castellano Lubov, Zenit, abril 04, 2019 01:27; “Wake Up, Brothers!” A Prophetic Warning at Notre Dame From the Future Pope Pius XII by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Apr. 17, 2019; Universalismo e dimensione internazionale nella Chiesa di Pio XI e di Pio XII by Philippe Chenaux, in Per una storia dell’Azione cattolica nel mondo. Problemi e linee di sviluppo dalle origini al Concilio Vaticano II, a cura de Paolo Trionfini, 2019; Urbi et Orbi: Franziskus, Pius und das „neue Wunder“ TV by P Bernd Hagenkord, vaticannews.va, Vatikanstadt, 21 April 2019, 12:19, with video; Quand la France s’enthousiasmait pour le futur Pie XII by Frédéric Le Moal, Aleteia, 10 mai 2019; Un arzobispo que sería Papa fue ordenado el día de la primera aparición de Fátima by Walter Sánchez Silva, ACI Prensa, 13 de mayo de 2019 10:39 am; Un pulpito, la Madonna e “er Papa de’ Roma” by Fabrizio Contessa, L'Osservatore Romano, 04 giugno 2019; Alle origini della «Mit brennender Sorge» by Paolo Valvo, L"Osservatore Romano, 05 giguno 2019; How Pius XII and the Church Saved Lives During World War II by Paulina Hoeing, National Catholic Register, Sep. 1, 2019; Consolatore dell’umana sofferenza. Nell’anniversario della morte di Pio XII by Fernando Chica Arellano, L'Osservatore Romano, 08 ottobre 2019; Hitler's Pope. The Secret History of Pius XII by John Cornwell. New York : Penguin Books, 1999; War of Holy Silence: An Examination of the Actions and Policies of the Holy See During the Second World War by Kristina Thorson, Deapartment of Religious Studies, Yale University, p. 3-45; Vaticano, oltre 6 mila ebrei a Roma si salvarono grazie all'azione di Pio XII, Il Messaggero.it, Città del Vaticano, Martedì 28 Gennaio 2020; Gli spazi del Papa. Dall’Archivio della Gendarmeria Pontificia l’inedita ricostruzione della politica di Pio XII durante la seconda guerra mondiale by Andrea Riccardi, L'Osservatore Romano, 01 febbraio 2020; Dall’Archivio della Gendarmeria Pontificia l’inedita ricostruzione della politica di Pio XII durante la seconda guerra mondiale. Gli spazi del Papa, Il Sismografo, L'Osservatore Romano, sabato 1 febbraio 2020; Apertura degli Archivi della Santa Sede per il pontificato di Pio XII, Il Sismografo, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, martedì 18 febbraio 2020; Pius XII faces moment of truth as opening of Vatican archives nears by Elise Ann Allen, Crux, Rome, Feb 19, 2020; História: Vaticano abre arquivos relativos ao pontificado de Pio XII, esperando iluminar aspetos polémicos, Cidade do Vaticano, Agência Ecclesia, 19 fev 2020; Pio XII, Giornata di studio per l’apertura degli Archivi vaticani by Fabio Colagrande, vaticannews.va, Città del Vaticano, 20 febbraio 2020, 11:30, with audio; Aprono gli archivi della Santa Sede per il pontificato di Pio XII, L'Osservatore Romano, 20 febbraio 2020; Vatican sees intense interest in opening of Pius XII <./a> by Nicole Winfield, Crux, Associated Press, Rome, Feb 20, 2020; Aprono gli archivi della Santa Sede per il pontificato di Pio XII, L'Osservatore Romano, 20 febbraio 2019.
Birth. March 7, 1874, Forio, diocese of Ischia, Italy. Son of Leonardo Lavitrano, a modest blacksmith, and Giuseppina Musella, an ambulant seller, originally from Ventotene. He had a sister, Francesca. The father died when Luigi was eight years old. The rest of his family died in the earthquake that wrecked the island of Ischia in 1883.
Education. Studied at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; at the Royal University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Leonine Institute, Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, March 21, 1898, Rome. Faculty member of the Pontifical Leonine Institute, 1898-1910; its rector, 1910-1914. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 8, 1904.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cava e Sarno, May 25, 1914. Consecrated, June 21, 1914, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Giovanni Regine, bishop of Nicastro, and by Giovanni Scotti, bishop of Cariati. His episcopal motto was Per crucem ad astra. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Benevento, July 16, 1924. Apostolic administrator of Castellmare di Stabia, 1924-1925. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Palermo, September 29, 1928.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, December 19, 1929. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He was severely injured during a bombing raid on Palermo, which he had refused to abandon while his flock was subject to the violence of war. He also welcomed the Allied conquerors, which included a vast contingent of Italian-Americans, many of whom were the children of people who had left Sicily only a generation ago. He resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese in December 1944 and left Palermo on August 6, 1945. Named prefect of the S.C. for Religious on May 14, 1945. He once scolded Italian Catholics for their religious negligence.
Death. August 2, 1950, Villini, Marino, Alban Hills. Buried in the basilica of S. Maria di Loreto, Foro d'lschia (1). There is a street, via Cardinale Luigi Lavitrano, named after him in Palermo.
Bibliography. Miller, Frederic P. Luigi Lavitrano. Edited by Agnes F. Vandome and John McBrewster. Saarbrücken : VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller e.K., 2010.
Webgraphy. Biography by Alessandro Marra, in Italian, EWriters, 18 agosto 2005; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; L'Ideatore del "Sinodo Intereparchiale" celebrato a Grottaferrata nel 1940 by Stefano Parenti, in Italian, Blog della Cattedrale di Piana degli Albanesi.
(1) This is the text of the inscriptions on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. September 17, 1861, Cogliate San Dalmazio, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Seventh of the eleven children of Fabio Minoretti and Giuseppina Camagni. He was baptized on the same day of his birth.
Education. Studied at Collegio di S. Martino in Mozzate, where his uncle, Don Antonio, was the vice-rector; then, at the Seminary of Pietro, in Seveso; later, at the Seminary of Monza, Milan; and finally, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he earned a doctorate in theology.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1883, Milan, by Luigi Nazari dei Conti di Calabiana, archbishop of Milan. Celebrated his first mass on Christmas Day 1883, in the old parish church of S. Giovanni Battista. Ascribed to the Congregation of the Oblates of S. Carlo of Milan. Further studies in Rome. Professor at the Seminary of Poleggio, Switzerland, for five years; and later, in 1888, professor of philosophy at the Episcopal Seminary of Lugano; and pastor of the parish of Gandria, also in Switzerland. Professor of philosophy at the Seminary of Monza, Milan, 1893-1907. Professor of theology and sociology at the Major Seminary of Milan, 1907-1909; and the Seminary of Lodi for three years. President of the Social Weeks of the Italian Catholics. Provost of the collegiate church of Seregno from 1909 until 1916. Synodal examiner of the archdiocese of Milan. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Milan, 1909-1915.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crema, December 6, 1915. Consecrated, January 16, 1916, Seregno, by Cardinal Andrea Ferrari, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Pietro Viganò, titular bishop of Aezani, and by Giovanni Mauri, titular bishop of Famagusta, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto was Per Jesum ad Mariam. Enthroned on the following April 23. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Genoa, January 16, 1925; enthroned on the following April 22. Apostolic administrator of Crema from May 1925 until January 1926.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, December 19, 1929. Named member of the SS. CC. Consistorial, Discipline of the Sacraments and Rites on December 19, 1929. Took possession of his title on the following December 20. Papal legate to the centennial celebration of Our Lady of Mercy, Savona, Italy, March 1, 1936. He built the Minor Seminary in Chiappeto, Genoa. On February 11, 1938, while speaking about the Immaculate of Lourdes to the Associazione UNITALSI, he felt indisposed. For a month, he was ill and getting worse by the day. As soon as the pope heard of his illness, he asked that daily bulletins should be sent to him, and besides his telegraphed message, the pontiff sent Monsignor Carlo Confalonieri, of the Papal Household, to Genoa to convey orally his best wishes and sincerest prayers for the Cardinal's recovery. He published a number of studies on social and economic questions.
Death. March 13, 1938, from cardiac exhaustion and advanced arteriosclerosis, in Genoa; on March 5, he had received the Viaticum in the presence of his cathedral chapter, the rectors of seminaries, and his private secretary, Monsignor Francesco Marchesani. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Genoa. There is a street and an oratory named after him in his native town; and another one in Seregno.
Bibliography. Bonaventura da Dolcedo. Orazione funebre in commemorazione di s. em.za rev.ma il sig. card. Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti arcivescovo di Genova presidente dell'Opera pia. S.l. : s.n., 1938. Responsibility: pronunciata dal r.do p. Bonaventura da Dolcedo nel trigesimo della morte. Note: In testa al front.: Opera pia De Ferrari Brignole Sale in Genova, (Ospedali Galliera); De Simone, Lazzaro. "Nella Cattedra di san Siro : il cardinale arcivescovo Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti ; Il cardinale Pietro Boetto nuovo arcivescovo di Genova" in Rivista Municipale.di Genova, April 1938; "Em. Minoretti (Charles-Dalmace)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 114; Minoretti, Carlo Dalmazio. Appunti di economia sociale. Milano : Premiata libreria religiosa di Giuseppe Palma , 1902; Minoretti, Carlo Dalmazio. Ideali umani. A cura di Lorenzo Caboara. Brescia : Paideia , 1963; Per la messa d'oro di sua eminenza reverendissima il cardinale arcivescovo Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti. Genova : Archidiocesi Genovese, 1933; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 145; Veneruso, Danilo. Azione pastorale e vita religiosa del laicato genovese durante l'episcopato del cardinale Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti (1925-1938). Genova : Nella sede della Società ligure di storia patria, 1990. (Atti della Società ligure di storia patria. Nuova serie).
Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; Il Cardinale Minoretti. Come un vecchio scalatore di montangna, , unaquiesinveritate.blogspot.com; his portrait, arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. March 19, 1861, Ballygowley, archdiocese of Armagh, Ireland. Son of Francis MacRory, a small farmer, and Rose Montague. He had nine brothers and sisters. His last name is also listed as MacRory; and as McRory.
Education. Studied at Saint Patrick's College, Armagh; and at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 13, 1885, Maynooth. First president of St. Patrick's Boys Academy, Dungannon, 1886-1887. Professor of Sacred Scripture and Modern Theology at the Birmingham Diocesan Seminary at Olton College, 1887-1889. Sacred Scripture and Oriental Languages at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, 1889-1915; vice-president, 1912-1915. One of the founders of The Irish Theological Quarterly in 1906.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Down and Connors, August 9, 1915. Consecrated, at Saint Patrick's church, Belfast, November 14, 1915, by Cardinal Michael Logue, archbishop of Armagh, assisted by Patrick Joseph O'Donnell, bishop of Raphoe, and by Joseph Hoare, bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnois. His episcopal motto was Res non verba. Member of the Irish Convention, 1917-1918. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Armagh, June 22, 1928.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, December 19, 1929. Papal legate at the laying of the foundation stone of Liverpool's cathedral, May 25, 1933; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Melbourne, Australia, October 18, 1934. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He strongly opposed social injustice, National Socialism, Protestantism and the partition of Ireland.
Death. October 13, 1945, at 7 am, of a heart attack after a brief illness, in Armagh. Buried in the primates' plot of St. Patrick's cemetery, Armagh.
Bibliography. Murphy, John J. The people's primate: a memoir of Joseph Cardinal Mac Rory. Dublin: Priory Press, 1945.
Webgraphy. Photograph and biography by Tomás O'Riordan, in English, MultiText Project in History, University College Cork; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. February 19, 1864, La-Croix-Barrez, diocese of Rodez, France.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Rodez. Joined the Society of Saint-Sulpice in 1886 in Paris.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 9, 1887, Rome. Faculty member of the Seminary of Perigueux, 1887-1898; its rector, 1898-1912. Faculty member and superior of the Seminary "Des Carmes," Paris, 1912-1920. Honorary canon of the metropolitan cathedral of Paris, 1923. Vice-superior general of his society, 1926-1929; superior general, July 16, 1929. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Paris, April 15, 1929. Protonotary apostolic, October 12, 1929.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Paris, November 18, 1929. Consecrated, December 29, 1929, Sistine chapel, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Alfred-Henri-Marie Baudrillart, Orat., titular archbishop of Melitene, vicar general of Paris, and by Emmanuel-Anatole Chaptal, titular bishop of Isinda, auxiliary of Paris for the foreigners. During his episcopate, he built over one hundred churches to minister to the working-class neighborhoods that had sprung up around Paris.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, December 19, 1929. Papal legate to the Marian Congress, Lourdes, France, July 15, 1930; to the centennial celebration of the Conferences of Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris, March 14, 1933; to the First National Catholic Congress, Prague, Czechoslovakia, June 20, 1935; to the consecration of the cathedral of Dakar, Sénégal, January 12, 1936; to the National Marian Congress, Aiguebelle, France, September 7, 1937. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the 12th National Eucharistic Congress, Algiers, April 16, 1939. An advocate of social justice, he regularly denounced racism - making pointed reference to Nazi Germany - from the pulpit of his cathedral and often slipped away from his office to work in a soup kitchen run by the Little Sisters of Paris.
Death. April 9, 1940, Paris. The funeral took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Paris in the presence of Cardinals Achille Liénart, bishop of Lille; Emmanuel-Célestin Suhard, archbishop of Reims; and Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Malines. Cardinal Arthur Hinsley, archbishop of Westminster, was represented by Edward Myers, titular bishop of Lamo, auxiliary of Westminster. He was buried in that cathedral. His memorial tablet is in the south-east corner of the ambulatory of that cathedral (1). There is a small museum commemorating him in the crypt of the church of his native Lacroix-Barrez.
Bibliography. Breiere, Yves de la. "Le Cardinal Verdier. Son rôle en France et hors de France." Etudes, CCXLIII (1940), 199-213; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 513-514.
(1) This is the inscription on the tablet, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:
©1998-2020 Salvador Miranda.