(4) 1. LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE DE BOUILLON, Emmanuel Théodose de (1643-1715)
Birth. August 24, 1643, Turenne, France. Also listed as Cardinal de Bouillon. Third son of Prince Frederick Maurice of Sedan, duke of Bouillon, and Eléonore-Catherine- Fébronie de Bergh. He was duke of Albret. Nephew of Marshal Turenne. Uncle of Cardinal Henri-Osvald de la Tour d'Auvergne de Boullion (1737).
Education. Studied at La Sorbone University, Paris, where he obtained a doctorate in 1667).
Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Liège, 1658; later grand provost of that chapter.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 5, 1669; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, May 19, 1670. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; entered the conclave on January 20, 1670. Abbot of Saint-Martin de Pontoise, 1670; of Saint-Ouen, Rouen; of Saint-Waast d'Arras, 1672; of Cluny, 1683; of Tournous; and of Vignone. Grand almoner of France, 1671-1700. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, October 19, 1676. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII.
Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, October 19, 1689. Consecrated, November 20, 1689, at the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Flavio Chigi, assisted by Giovanni Battista Rubini, bishop of Vicenza, and by Francesco Giusti, bishop of Sutri e Nepi. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, July 21, 1698. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1698-1700. Disappointed because of the king's denial of certain benefits for members of his family, he criticized him in a satire and this produced his fall from favor at the French court. He tried to obtain the see of Liège but failed. Eventually, he regained the royal favor and was named French ambassador before the Holy See, 1698-1700. In Rome, against the instructions of the king, he supported François Fénelon against Jacques Bossuet in the Gallican controversy. He was recalled to France, August 1700, but, because of his duties as sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, did not leave Rome. Legate a latere for the opening of the Holy Door of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in the Jubilee of 1700 and for the closing of the one in the patriarchal basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia and Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 15, 1700. Granted eligibility to occupy the sees of Liège and Strassbourg, February 8, 1701. His property in France was seized and he gave in and returned to France. He was exiled to the abbey of Tournus. He reconciled with the king of France and in May 1710, after having requested his recall to the court for a long time, he fled to the Low Countries. A warrant for his arrest was issued by the Royal Parliament, and his possessions were again confiscated. After some years abroad, during which the cardinal sent to the king numerous messages, justifying his conduct, his revenues were restored and he was given permission to reside in Rome.
Death. March 2, 1715, in his Roman residence in the Jesuit novitiate of S. Andrea al Quirinale. Exposed in the Jesuit church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, Rome, where the funeral took place on March 6, 1715; transferred with a solemn cavalry to the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale and buried there.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 190-194; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 371-372.
Webgraphy. Biography by Edward Gilligan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church; his bust attributed to Giuseppe Mazzuoli, Museum du Louvre, Paris, France, Réunion des musées nationaux; The Duchy of Bouillon, in English, Heraldica, François R. Velde.
(5) 2. FERNÁNDEZ DE PORTOCARRERO, Luis Manuel (1635-1709)
Birth. January 8, 1635, Palma del Río, diocese of Córdoba, Spain. Second of the four children of Luis Andrés Fernández Portocarrero, marquis of Almenares, and Leonor de Guzmán, of the marquises of Algaba. The other children were Fernando, Inés María and Agustina. Related to Cardinal Luis Antonio Fernández de Cárdoba (1754). Grand uncle of Cardinal Joaquín Fernández de Portocarrero (1743). He is also listed as Louis de Porto Carrero; his first name as Emanuel; and his last name as Fernández de Portocarrero y Guzmán; and as Fernández de Portocarrero-Bocanegra y Moscoso-Osorio.
Education. Studied at the University of Toledo, where he obtained a licentiate in theology.
Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Canon and dean of the cathedral chapter of Toledo.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of August 5, 1669; published in the consistory of November 29, 1669. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; arrived in Rome, April 19, 1670, and entered the conclave on April 23. Received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, May 19, 1670. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Governor of the see of Toledo during its vacancy, 1665-1666; vicar for spiritual and temporal affairs, 1666-1677. Royal chaplain. Declined promotion to the metropolitan see of Granada. Granted permission to accept and exercise the posts of captain general and viceroy of Sicily, May 4, 1677; occupied the posts until 1678.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Toledo, December 20, 1677. Consecrated, Sunday January 16, 1678, Palermo, Sicily, by Jaime Palafox Cardona, archbishop of Palermo, assisted by Juan Ruano Corrionero, archbishop of Monreale, and by Francisco Arata, bishop of Lipari. Did not participate in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, January 27, 1698. Did not participate in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. President of the Council of Regency, instituted by King Charles II in his will, from November 1700 until February 1701; as such, he favored the accession of Philippe de Bourbon to the Spanish throne. This nomination provoked the War of Spanish Succession. He was one of the members of a ruling triumvirate under King Felipe V. Granted permission to treat criminal matters as councilor of state and governor of the Kingdom of Spain, February 18, 1702. Because of the intrigues of the princess of Ursinos, he fell from favor and resigned in 1703. He later, in 1706, lent his support to Archduke Karl von Österreich, a contender for the throne of Spain, but rectified two months later. The archduke was defeated by the king in 1706.
Death. September 14, 1709, Madrid. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo, and buried in the chapel of Bienaventurada Virgen María in that cathedral (1). The news of his death reached Rome on October 12, 1709.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 193-184; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 217; The History, political and gallant, of the famous Card. Portocarrero, Archbishop of Toledo. London : Printed for W.R. and to be sold by John Nutt, 1704. (Early British fiction pre 1750), reel 29, no. 302; Peña Izquierdo-Portocarrero, Antonio Ramón. La casa de Palma : la familia Portocarrero en el gobierno de la Monarquía Hispánica, (1665-1700). Córdoba : Universidad de Córdoba : CajaSur Publicaciones, 2004. (Estudios de historia moderna. Colección "Maior" ; no. 23); Ruiz, F. J. "Fernández de Portocarrero, Luis Manuel." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), II, 921.
Webgraphy. Biography by Carmen Sanz Ayán, in Spanish, DB~e, Diccionario Biográfico Español; his portrait, engraving and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his engraving, by Pieter Schenk, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving, Alamy Ltd.; Juan Carreño de Miranda “Retrato de Luís Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero”, arterestauracion, Alicia Hernández y Òscar Benavent – Restauradores de obras de arte; his genealogy, Grandes de España, III, 1, 2ii; his genealogy, Geneanet; "Pulvis, cinis et nihil". El cardenal Portocarrero, © Manuel Martínez Bargueño, Febrero, 2010; his coat of arms, Cambi Casa d'Aste; Palacio Portocarrero, in Spanish; Los Arzobispos de Toledo, in Spanish, Archidiócesis de Toledo; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; Portocarrero y la entrega de la corona de España, Entre Dos Ríos, Blog de Emilio Navarro, miércoles, 2 de noviembre de 2011; El Sol de Portocarrero by Dolores Gallardo López, Madrid, lunes, 10 de marzo de 2014, La Mirada Actual; Primera nota biográfica sobre el cardenal don Luis Manuel Fernández-Portocarrero, arzobispo de Toledo (1635-1709) by José Carlos Gómez-Menor Fuentes, in Anales Toledanos, número 5, 17 febrero, 2014; El Virrey de Sicilia Cardenal Portocarrero y la Revuelta de Messina a través de la Correspondencia con el Plenipotenciario Español en Venecia Marqués de Villagracia (1677-1678) by Antonio Ramón Peña Izquierdo, Tiempos Modernos. Revista electrónica de Historia Moderna, Nº 4; Al eminentissimo señor D. Luis Manuel Portocarrero, mi señor, Cardenal de la Santa Iglesia de Roma, titulo de Santa Sabina, Arçobispo de Toledo, Primado de las Españas, del Consejo de Estado de su Magestad (que Dios guarde) de Don Fermin de Sarasa y Arce, Gentil-hombre de Camara del Excelentissimo Señor Duque de Medina-Celi. Between 1678 and 1709?, [S.l. s.n.], Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, Biblioteca Nacional de España; El Cardenal Portocarrero y el Convento Franciscano de Ntra. Sra. del Castañar by Antonia Ríos de Balmaseda, Toletum: Boletín de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes y Ciencias Históricas de Toledo, Nº. 30, 1994, 177-182; "Pulvis, cinis et nihil". El cardenal Portocarrero by Manuel Martínez Bargueño, Febrero, 2010.
(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the blog of Martínez Bargueño, linked above:
©1998-2023 Salvador Miranda.