The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689)
Consistory of September 2, 1686 (II)
Celebrated in Rome

(17) 1. DE ANGELIS, Giacomo (1610-1695)

Birth. October 13, 1610, Pisa (1). Of a noble family. His first name is also listed as Jacopo.

Education. Studied at the University of Pisa, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Governor of the cities of Narni, Fabriano and Jesi in the pontificate of Pope Innocent X. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Urbino, September 20, 1660. Consecrated, October 3, 1660, church of S. Maria del Rosario, by Cardinal Giulio Sacchetti. Resigned government of the archdiocese, 1667. Vice-gerent of Rome, February 27, 1667 until September 2, 1686. Named secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars by Pope Clement IX (1667-1669) but the appointment did not take effect because Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni wanted the position for another prelate. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, September 30, 1686. Abbot of Nonantola. Apostolic visitor to the Shrine of Loreto and to the archdiocese of Urbino. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. September 15, 1695, Barga, near Garfagnana, archdiocese of Pisa. Transferred to Rome, was buried in his title in the subterranean chamber of his family's chapel of S. Pietro di Alcantara (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 264-265; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, pp. 60-61; Ligi, Bramante. I vescovi e arcivescovi di Urbino; notizie storiche. Con 100 xilografie del prof. Riccardo Parenti. Urbino : Stabilimento tip. editoriale urbinate, 1953, pp. 187-191.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his tomb in S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Del Re, Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, p. 60, he was born on October 12, 1610 in Barga, Lucca.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the photograph of his tomb, linked above:

D     O    M
CONSTRVCTO HOC SACELLO
IN HONOREM D. PETRI DE ALCANTARA
SEPVLCHRVM SIBI SVISQVE POSVIT
IACOBVS TITVLO S. MARIAE DE ARACOELI
PRESBITER CARDINALIS DE ANGELIS
QVI NATVS ANNO MDCXI
VIXIT NON SIBI SED CHRISTIANF REIPVBLICÆ
OB EXIMIAS VIRTVTES RESQ. PRÆCLARE GESTAS
AD INNOCENTIO XI
INTER CARDINALES ADSCRIPTVS AN. MDCLXXXVI
PIE OBIIT IN ETRVRIA AN. MDCVC
CVIVS CADAVER HVC INFERRI CVRAVIT
MARCHIO EQVES ET PRIOR S. STEPHANI
IO: PHILIPPVS FRATRIS FILIVS
ANNO MDCCI

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(18) 2. PALLAVICINI, Opizio (1632-1700)

Birth. October 15, 1632, Genoa. Of a noble family. Fourth of the six children of Senator Paolo Girolamo Pallavicini, marquis of the Holy Roman Empire, and Maddalena Spinola. The other siblings were Pierantonio, S.J., Francesca, Gianfrancesco, Giovanna and Giuseppe. Uncle of Quasi-cardinal Lazzaro Pallavicini (1740). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Lazzaro Opizio Pallavicini (1766).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood. Went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Innocent X. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of the cities of Ascoli, San Severino, Orvieto, Montalto, and Fermo.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Efeso, February 27, 1668. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Tuscany, June 1, 1668. Nuncio in Cologne, November 29, 1672. Nuncio in Poland, September 30, 1680; greatly impulsed the war against the Turks.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686. Legate in Urbino, July 12, 1688 until 1690. Received the red hat and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, November 14, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Transferred to the see of Spoleto, with personal title of archbishop, November 28, 1689. Transferred to the see of Osimo, with personal title of archbishop, August 8, 1691. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. February 11, 1700, Buratti palace, Rome, where he resided. He had suffered an apoplectic attack three days earlier and had since been unconscious. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place on February 13, 1700, and in the afternoon, buried in the vestibule of the subterranean church of his title.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 265-266; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 705.

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(19) 3. RANUZZI, Angelo Maria
(1626-1689)

Birth. May 19, 1626, Bologna. Of a patrician and senatorial family. Second of the three children of Senator Count Marcantonio Ranuzzi and Orintia Albergati. The other children were Anna Maria and Annibale. Great-grand uncle of Cardinal Vincenzo Ranuzzi (1785).

Education. Studied at the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Took a trip throughout Europe to learn the idiosyncracies and customs of its countries.

Early life. Professor of canon law in Fano. Went to Rome and became a papal prelate. Referendary of the tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of the cities of Rimini, 1661; Rieti; Camerino; and Ancona. Pope Alexander VII named him vice-legate in Urbino, and commissary general of the papal army. Inquisitor in Malta, 1667.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damiata, with dispensation for not having yet received any of the sacred orders, April 30, 1668. Consecrated, June 24, 1668, Rome, by Cardinal Cesare Facchinetti assisted by Giacomo Altoviti, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, and by Stefano Brancaccio, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 26, 1668. Nuncio in Savoia, June 30, 1668. Nuncio in Poland, May 13, 1671. Governor of Marca Anconitana, November 20, 1675. Transferred to the see of Fano, with personal title of archbishop, April 18, 1678. Sent to Paris in 1683 to avoid the breakup of the friendship between France and Austria with the object of building a strong league against the Turks. Sent to Paris again in 1686 to bring the blessed fasce for the infant duke of Borgogna, son of Louis XIV, king of France; remained in Paris negotiating several grave matters between the Holy See and France and at times was placed under police surveillance.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; never received the red hat and the title. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bologna, May 17, 1688.

Death. September 27, 1689, in the house of the Filippini Fathers in Fano, while travelling to attend the conclave. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Fano (1). He left his large library to his nephew Count Ranuzzi.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 266-268; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 257; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : [s.l.], 1975, pp. 456-459. (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3); Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 797.

(1) In the south aisle of the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, there is a large memorial tablet over the door to the sacristy with a roundel with the left profile bust of the cardinal inscribed GENTIS ATQUE PATRIAE ORNAMENTUM. This is text of the inscription on the tablet, provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

ANGELO S. R. E. CARD. RANUTIO
ISTIUS PATRIA METROPOLITANAE PASTORI ET S. R. I. PRINCIPI
IN CONCILIANDA INTER PRAECIPUOS REIP. XPNA DYNASTAS PACI
VIRO EMINENTISSIMO
EX GALLICA LEGATIONE ROMAM REDEUNTI
FANI FORTUNAE UBI PRIUS RESEDERAT
OMNIUM LUCTU POTIUS QUAM SUO
ACUTA FEBRE SUBLATO
CAETERA DURE LAPIS PRAETERIT
UNIVERSAE EUROPAE TESTANTUR MONUMENTA
ANNO DOMINI MDCLXXXIX

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(20) 4. KÜNBURG, Maximilian Gandolph von (1622-1687)

Birth. October 30 (or November 1), 1622, Graz, Styria. Of a noble family. Son of Reinprecht, baron von Künburg and Helena von Schrattenbach. Uncle of Cardinal Wolfgang Hanibal von Schrattenbach (1712). He was the third member of th family to become archbishop of Salzburg.

Education. Studied in Graz, Salzburg, and in the Jesuit Collegio Germanico, Rome.

Early life. Elected canon of the cathedral chapter of Eichstätt, 1643. Elected canon of the cathedral chapter of Salzburg, 1644; wirklicher Domherr, 1647; and Konsistorialratspräsident, 1654.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lavant, December 8, 1654. Consecrated, August 1, 1655, Salzburg, by Guidobald von Thun, archbishop of Salzburg. Transferred to the see of Seckau, February 7, 1665. Granted eligibility to the metropolitan see of Salzburg, September 29, 1667; eligibility renewed, July 6, 1668. Elected archbishop of Salzburg by its cathedral chapter, July 30, 1668. Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Named administrator of Salzburg for six months, August 11, 1668. Preconized as archbishop of Salzburg and named administrator of the see of Seckau for six months, November 12, 1668; administration extended for a year, June 14, 1669; extended again for two years, December 5, 1669. The archbishops of Salzburg have the title of Primas Germaniæ since 1648. He initiated various measures in the sense of the Counter-Reformation: he founded the Seekirchen Abbey (1679); built the Church of Origin (first pilgrimage church) in Maria Plain; he founded the court library and founded the Augustinian monasteries of Hallein and Tittmoning (All Saints Church) as well as that Theatine monastery in Salzburg. He also renewed the Imbergkirche in Salzburg and had the Erhardkirche and the Kajetanerkirche built. As a secular authoritarian ruler, he issued a wealth of instructions and ordinances: the Salzburg Fire Extinguishing Ordinance (1677) with four chimney sweeps a year in the city of Salzburg; the cleaning regulations for the weekly cleaning of the streets, with the prohibition of emptying the toilets into places and the like; streets and sewage spouts had to be contained and led into the ground; all rubbish had to be thrown into streams and rivers; toilets were only allowed to be emptied at night; public wells could not be polluted. The Alms Regulations (1678) including the "Beggar's Register" (only very old and sick people were allowed to beg with ID) to "combat" the high number of beggars; the rules of rest and security; the infection regulations (1679); the embarrassing and civil procedure code also served for the exact application and regulation of the "highly embarrassing questioning", i.e. torture; as well as many others. He showed a high degree of intolerance and firmly adhered to the tradition of the Catholic Church. His nepotism is also known. In many cases, his work is extremely critical as he carried out the eviction of the Protestant miners from Dürrnberg under their leaders Joseph Schaitberger and the Deferegger exiles. Between 1675 and 1690, he had 153 people executed in the archdiocese in the magic boy trials for alleged magic and witchcraft, the majority of them children and adolescents. With this approach, he also wanted to combat the “begging mischief” (i.e. begging of the poorest of the poor) in his own way. The defendants were almost all beggars, vagrants or other largely poor people. Confessions were extorted by torture. The focus was on the lawsuit against Barbara Koller and her son Jakob Koller, called Schinderjackl. The "magician Jackl" had gathered many young people in a "blood community". In the city of Salzburg, the accused beggar boys were also held in the witch tower in Salzburg due to the overcrowding of the prisons in 1678–1679. Almost all of the executions themselves took place at the execution site in Salzbuirg-Gneis.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. Salzburg, May 3, 1687, of a brain abscess. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Salzburg, in a tin coffin, in the chapel of Sankt Franziskus (1). His heart and intestines were sent to the Maria Plain pilgrimage basilica. The funeral music was composed by Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 268-271.

Webgraphy. His portrait, tomb, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; brief biographical data, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico Friulano.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

MAXIMILIANVS
GANDOLPHVS
EX COMITIBVS
DE KVENBVRG
CARDINALIS
PRINC · ARCHIEPP ·
MDCLXVIII - MDCLXXXVII

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(21) 5. LENCASTRE, Veríssimo de (1615-1692)

Birth. November 15, 1615 (1), Lisbon, Portugal. Fifth child of D. Francisco Luís de Lencastre, commander major of Avis, and Dna. Filipa Vilhena. The other children were Luis, Manuel, Pedro, António, Carlos, José, Maria and Mariana. His last name is also listed as Alencastre and Lancastre.

Education. Studied at the University of Coimbra, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained to the presbyterate (no date found). Inquisitor in Evora, 1653, and in Lisbon, from 1660.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Braga, December 22, 1670. He received the pallium on February 23, 1671. Consecrated after 24 May 1671 and before 26 July 1671, by Francesco Ravizza, titular archbishop of Sidon, nuncio to Portugal. Inquisitor general of Portugal and the Azores Islands, November 28, 1676; he succeeded his brother Pedro. Resigned government of the archdiocese, February 8, 1677. Suspended from the office of inquisitor, May 27, 1679. The suspension was declared void and he was reestablished in the post, August 22, 1681. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the prince of Portugal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated September 7, 1686; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. December 12, 1692, Lisbon. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Lisbon and buried in the Lencastre chapel in the convent of S. Pedro de Alcântara, Lisbon (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 271; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 13 and 126.

Webgraphy. Brief biography, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses, under "D. VERÍSSIMO DE LENCASTRE", patriarcado de Lisboa; his genealogy, A3 C4 D5, Genealogy EU; and another genealogy, in Polish, XXIV, 5 Stefan Marek.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 126, indicates that he was 50 years, et ultra, of age when elected archbishop of Braga. In V, 13, the same source indicates that he died at anni agens circa 85 in 1692. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he died in 1611 in his 82nd year. Other sources give years ranging from 1607 to 1615.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 271, says that he was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lisbon.

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(22) 6. DURAZZO, Marcello
(1633-1710)

Birth. March 6, 1633 or 1634 (1), Genoa. Son of Cesare I Durazzo, doge of the Republic of Genoa, and Giovanna Cervetto. Nephew of Cardinal Stefano Durazzo (1633).

Education. Attended the University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic participantium, January 31, 1660. Governor of Rimini, from the beginning of 1662 to 1663. Governor of Fano, 1663. Vice-legate in Bologna, 1664-1666. Governor of Ancona, September 30, 1666 to 1668. Governor of the province of Campagna e Marittima, April 18 to November 1668. Governor of Viterbo, December 14, 1668. Governor of Perugia, July 18, 1670 to May 4, 1671. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Calcedonia, May 4, 1671. Nuncio in Savoy, June 17, 1671 until 1672. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 28, 1671. Apostolic visitor and governor of Loreto, 1672. Vice-legate in Avignon, August 19, 1672. Nuncio in Portugal, April 12 (2), 1673. Nuncio in Spain, May 5 (3), 1685.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686. Abbot commendatario of Malignano, Cremona, 1686. Transferred to the see of Carpentras, Comté Venaissin, with personal title of archbishop, November 10, 1687. Did not participate in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, November 14, 1689. Transferred to the see of Ferrara, with personal title of archbishop, November 27, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Transferred to the see of Spoleto, with personal title of archbishop, August 27, 1691. Legate in Bologna, September 28, 1693. Resigned government of the diocese, February 7, 1695. Transferred to the see of Faenza, with personal title of archbishop, November 11, 1697. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 21, 1701. Legate in Romandiola, June 6, 1701 to 1706.

Death. April 27, 1710, at 5 p.m., in the episcopal palace of Faenza. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Faenza.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 271-273; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 320; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, V, 13, 50, 144, 155, 199, 200 and 362; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 117, 134, 156, 157, 183, 236, 282, 333, 354, 369, 433, 648-649.

Webgraphy. Biography by Matteo Sanfilippo - Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 42 (1993), Treccani; his engravings, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 13, which indicates that he died in 1710 at 76. The same source, V, 155, indicates that he was aetatis 36 anni circiter in 1671 when he was promoted to the episcopate. Cardella, Memorie storcihe de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 273, says that he was 80 years old when he died in 1710.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 13; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII, p. 320, indicates that he was named on April 29, 1637.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 13; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII, p. 320, indicates that he was named on May 20, 1685.

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(23) 7. MATTEI, Orazio (1621-1688)

Birth. March 15, 1622, Rome. Of the dukes of Paganica. Son of Ludovico Mattei (+ 1635) and Laura Frangipane. He had a younger brother, Michele (1632-1699), who was a priest and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. His uncle Orazio Mattei was bishop of Gerace and nuncio in Venezia in 1605-1606.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood (no date found). Papal prelate in the pontificate of Pope Innocent X. Governor of the cities of Orvieto (1651-1654); of Montalto (1654-1655); of Iesi (1655-1658); and Camerino (1658-1659). Returned to Rome. Voter of the tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Prelate of the Congregation of Good Government (1661-1668). Vice-legate in Avignon (1670-1671). Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota (1672-1675). Prefect of the Apostolic Palace (1675-1686).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, June 17, 1675. Consecrated (no information found). Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 28, 1675. Member of the Congregation of the Fabbrica di S. Pietro after 1680.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, September 30, 1686. Pro-prefect of the Apostolic Palace (1686-1688).

Death. January 18, 1688, near 6 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried on the left side of his family's chapel of della Pietà, in that same church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 286-287.

Webgraphy. Biography by Stefano Tabacchi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 72 (2008), Treccani; his tomb in S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome, Australian National University; his engaving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his funeral monument, kindly rpovided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

D O M
HORATIVS CARD MATTAEHIVS SANCTI LAURENTII
IN PANE ET PERNA CREATVS AB INNOCENTIO XI DIE SECVNDA
SEPTEMBRIS MDCLXXXVI OBIIT XVIII IANVARII MDCLXXXVII
MICHELANGELVS PATRIARCA ANTIOCHENVS
GERMANO FRATRI AMATISSIMO MONVMENTVM POSVIT

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(24) 8. BARBARIGO, Marcantonio
(1640-1706)

Birth. March 6, 1640, Venice. Sixth child of Antonio Barbarigo and Agnesia Falier. His first name is also listed as Marco Antonio; and his last name Barbadico; and as Barbadigo. Of the noble family of the doges of Venice Marcantonio Barbarigo (1485-1486) and Agostino Barbarigo (1486-1502). Grand-uncle of Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769). Relative of Cardinals Gregorio Barbarigo (1660) and Giovanni Francesco Barbarigo (1719). Another cardinal of the family was Angelo Barbarigo (1408).

Education. Studied at the University of Padua, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1676.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua. To follow his priestly vocation, abandoned a successful diplomatic career.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1671, Venice. From Venice he passed to Padua because his relative Gregorio Barbarigo, bishop of Padua and future saint, wanted his young relative close to him and supervised his studies until he graduated in utroque iure and, in 1676, after enrolling him among the canons of the city cathedral, he wanted him with him, as a companion and confidant, on his journey in Rome for the conclave then underway, in which was elected pope Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi, who took the name Innocent XI.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Corfù, June 6, 1678. Consecrated, June 26, 1678, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Gregorio Barbarigo, assisted by Antonio Capobianco, former bishop of Lacedonia, and by Bartolomeo Menatti, bishop of Lodi. He was granted the pallium on July 18, 1678. Because of an incident with Barbone Morosini, admiral of the Venetian fleet, he had to leave his see and went to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, September 30, 1686. Transferred to the see of Montefiascone e Corneto, with personal title of archbishop, July 7, 1687. In Montefiascone he founded the seminary that has his name in which he promoted the studies of the clergy, following with particular attention the discipline and the directions, donating with munificence of his to widen the means and the possibilities and endowing it with a rich library; in his diocese, he also stablished the Istituto delle Scuole e Maestre Pie, conceived by him as a function of organic help and effective assistance to the girls of the people, in which plan he succeeded magnificently, making use, among other things, of the collaboration of the Venerable Rosa Venerini and coming to open more than ten schools in the main centers of his diocese. He showed self-sacrifice, in 1695, on the occasion of a serious earthquake that devastated large areas of the region entrusted to him. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the title of S. Marco, July 1, 1697. He consecrated the basilica shrine Maria SS. del Suffraggio on October 12, 1698. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. May 26, 1706, at 10 a.m., in the episcopal palace of Montefiascone. Exposed in the cathedral of Montefiascone; his body was placed in a coffin made of pine, which was placed in a lead casket, and buried in the tomb of the bishops; later, the remains were transferred to the crypt of the co-cathedral of S. Margherita in Montefiascone; his heart was placed in a reliquary in the Seminary of Montefiascone.

Beatification. On July 6, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI authorized the promulgation of the decree concerning his heroic virtues.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 275-277; Fabene, Fabio. Una divina storia d'amore. Il Cardinale Marco Antonio Barbarigo, Vescovo di Montefiascone e Corneto (Tarquinia). Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2007; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 13, 47, 52, 172 and 274; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 84; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 536.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gian Franco Torcellan, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 6 (1964), Treccani; arms, portrait and biography, in Italian, barbarigo.org; his portrait by an anonymous artist, provincia.vt.it; his engravings and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

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(25) 9. CICERI, Carlo Stefano Anastasio (1616/1619-1694)

Birth. December 26, 1618, in Milan (1). His family was originally from Como. Son of Vincenzo Ciceri. Relative of Pope Innocent XI.

Education. Attended the University of Bologna (2), where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Governor of cities and provinces in the Papal States during the pontificate of Pope Innocent X. Voter of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Referendary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Alessandria della Paglia, September 22, 1659. Consecrated, October 5, 1659, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi. Transferred to the see of Como, May 13, 1680.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, July 7, 1687. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. June 24, 1694, at 3 p.m., Novo Como. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Como

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 277; Chenna, Giuseppe Antonio. Del vescovato, de'vescovi e delle chiese della città e diocesi d'Alessandria. Libri quattro. Alessandria : Nella tipografía d'Ignacio Vimercati Stampatore dell'Illustrissima Città, MDCCLXXXV, tomo I, 320-323; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 77; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 13.

Webgraphy. His portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Chenna, Del vescovato, de'vescovi e delle chiese della città e diocesi d'Alessandria, I, 320. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 13, that says he died in 1694 at 78 years of age (would have been born in 1616). Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 76, indicates that he was 40 years old when elected bishop of Alessandria in 1659 (would have been born in 1619). Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 277, indicates that he was 76 years old when he died in 1694 (would have been born in 1618). This author erroneously indicates that he never received his cardinalitial title (non ebbe giammai titolo cardinalizio).
(2) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 76, 77. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 277, indicates that he obtained the doctorate at the University of Pavia.

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(26) 10. KOLLONITSCH, Leopold Karl von (1631-1707)

Birth. October 26 (al. 24), 1631, Castle of Komárom (now Komárno), archdiocese of Esztergom, Hungary. Son of Count Ernst von Kollonitsch, commander of the fortress of Komáron. His last name is also listed as Kollonitz; as Kolloniz; as Kollonich; as Collonicz; and as Kollonich Lipót. Uncle of Cardinal Sigismund von Kollonitsch (1727).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Knight of the Sovereing Military Order of Malta, 1650. Participated in the defense of Candia against the Turks in 1651. Imperial chamberlain, 1659. Castellano of the island of Malta. In 1654, he took part in the defence of Crete, and in 1655 he fought at the Battle of the Dardanelles, a victory for Venice. He became a Knight Hospitaller in 1658 and was next appointed as Prior and Castellan of the Order of Mailberg, based at Schloss Mailberg. Soon he was also in command of Eger in Bohemia. Entered the ecclesiastical state.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1668.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nyitra, April 30, 1668. Consecrated, August 26, 1668, in the house of the professed Jesuits, Vienna, by Antonio Pignatelli, titular archbishop of Larissa, assisted by Ferenc Szegedy, bishop of Vác, and by Lorenz Aidinger, bishop of Wiener Neustadt. Transferred to the see of Wiener Neustadt, May 19, 1670. President of the chamber of the Hungarian court, 1672. Distinguished himself in the second siege of Vienna by the Turks, 1683. Minister of State, 1692. Privy imperial councilor.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686. Transferred to the see of Györ, September 16, 1686. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, November 14, 1689. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Kalocssa-Bács, retaining the administration of Györ, March 6, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. State and konferenzminister, 1692. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, ceasing as administrator of Györ, August 22, 1695. Did not participate in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. January 20 (al. 19), 1707, Vienna. Buried in the church of St. Saviour, Poszont (Pressburg) (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 277-279.

Webgraphy. Biography by Susanne Siebert, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtár; portrait and brief biographical data, in German, AEIOU, Österreich-Lexikon; his image, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; biographical data and engraving by Matthäus Merian, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was buried on January 22, 1707, in the Jesuit church of Sankt'Anna, Vienna.

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(27) 11. LE CAMUS, Étienne (1632-1707)

Birth. September 24 (1), 1632, Paris, France. Of a family from Poitiers. Son of Nicolas Le Camus, a state councilor.

Education. Studied at La Sorbonne University, Paris, obtaining a doctorate in theology in 1650.

Early life. Almoner of the king of France at a young age. Because of his dissipated life, Cardinal Jules Mazarin exiled him to Meaux. Recalled to the French court, he retired to the Carthusian monastery of La Trappe in 1665. This experience changed his lightness of mind to an asceticism which took him to Port-Royal. For him, Jansenism was more a matter of personal sympathy and spiritual discipline than a doctrine. Impressed by his profound change, Cardinal Mazarin reinstated him in the favor of the king and recommended his nomination to the see of Grenoble.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood (no date found). Declined appointment to the see of Bazas in 1667. Later, was promoted to the episcopate against his will.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Grenoble, July 1, 1671. Consecrated, August 24, 1671, Carthusian church, Paris, by Pierre du Cambout de Coislin, bishop of Orléans, assisted by Hugues de Bar, bishop of Lectoure, and by Jean de Rotundis de Biscaras, bishop of Béziers. Refused to sign the proposition of the Gallican clergy of 1682.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686 (2). Did not participate in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, August 8, 1691. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. September 12, 1707, Grenoble. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Grenoble.

Bibliography. Bellet, Charles Félix. Histoire du cardinal Le Camus, évêque et prince de Grenoble. Paris : Libraire des Archives nationales et de la Société de l'École des chartes, 1886; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 279-281; Le cardinal des montagnes : Étienne Le Camus, Evêque de Grenoble (1671-1707) : actes du Colloque Le Camus, Grenoble, 1971 / présentés par Jean Godel ; [organisé par le Centre d'histoire du catholicisme et le Centre de recherche d'Histoire de l'Italie et des Pays alpins]. Grenoble : Presses universitaires de Grenoble, 1974. (Études dauphinoises ; 3); Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 377-378.

Webgraphy. Biography by Joseph Sollier, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; four engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born on October 13, 1632. Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 377-378; and Armand, Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'a 1801, p. 481, give his date of birth as November 24, 1632.
(2) His promotion to the cardinalate was an initiative of the pope, an action very infrequent in the case of foreign cardinals. King Louis XIV wanted François de Harlay de Champvallon, archbishop of Paris, to be the one elevated. The promotion provoked cold relations between the court and the cardinal, who little by little, according to Armand's work, p. 482, par ses maniéres insinuantes, ces concessions et son savoir-faire, rentra en faveur à la cour.

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(28) 12. GOES, Johannes von (1612-1696)

Birth. February 10, 1612, Brussels, Flanders. Of a noble family. His last name is also listed as Goessen, as Goess; and as Goës.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Entered the court of Emperor Leopold I of Austria. Charged with several important and difficult missions. Imperial councilor. After participating in the battle of Szentgotthárd, Hungary, 1664, in which the Austrian forces defeated the Turks, decided to enter the ecclesiastical life.

Episcopate. Nominated bishop of Gurk by the emperor of Austria, October 5, 1675.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found). Celebrated his first mass on December 13, 1675. Nomination to the see of Gurk confirmed by Maximilian Gandolph von Künberg, archbishop of Salzburg, January 16, 1676. Consecrated, February 2, 1676, Jesuit professed house, Vienna, by Wilderich von Walderdorf, bishop of Vienna, assisted by Thomas Palfy, bishop of Nitra, and by Leopold von Kollonitsch, bishop of Wiener Neustadt. Imperial plenipotentiary to the negotiations of the peace of Numegen, 1678-1679.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686. Austrian ambassador before the Holy See, 1686. Did not participate in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, November 14, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. October 19, 1696, at 6 p.m., in the Roman palace of the dukes of Caserta di Gaetani, in Via Lata, where he had resided for several years. Exposed in the Capuchin church of Santissima Concezione, Rome, where the funeral took place on October 22, 1696, and buried in the middle of that same church. In his will, he left 25000 ducati for the foundation of a hospital in Hungary.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 281-282.

Webgraphy. His engraving, arms, epitaph and biography, Wikipedia; his engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

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(29) 13. RADZIEJOWSKI, Augustyn Michał Stefan
(1645-1705)

Birth. December 3, 1645 (1), in the county of Radziejcowice, fief of his family, Poznán, Poland. Of a noble family. Son of Hieronim Radziejowski and Eufrozyna Eulalia z Tarnowskich. He had a brother, Michał, and a sister, Anna. Nephew of King Jan III Sobieski, on his mother's side.

Education. Stydied at Collège d'Harcourt, Paris; and at La Sorbonne University, Paris. Obtained a doctorate in Rome.

Early life. His father, who was vice-chancellor of Poland, was deprived of all his wealth and possessions by King Kazimierz of Poland, who suspected he had supported the Swedish when they hostilely entered the confines of the kingdom. Left Poland, and was adopted by Queen María Luisa Gonzaga, who took him to Paris. Studied there for several years and went to Rome. Returned to Poland and the new king, his uncle, named him canon of the cathedral chapter of Kraków (al. Warsaw).

Sacred orders. Received the tonsure on June 19, 1667, from Marco Gallio, bishop of Rimini, in his private chapel.

Priesthood. Ordained 1668, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ermland, September 23, 1680 (2). Consecration, January 26, 1681, in the Warsaw collegiate church of St. John the Baptist, by Jan Małachowski, bishop of Kraków, assisted by Stanisław Jacek Święcicki, bischop of Chełm, and Jan Stanisław Witwicki, bishop of Kijów. Vice-chancellor of Poland, 1685.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, November 14, 1689. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Gniezno and primate of Poland, May 17, 1688. Did not participate in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. At the Diet for the election of a new king, he decidedly supported the prince of Conti, apparently by receiving a large bribe. When August of Saxony was elected, he showed his aversion with word and deed. He joined King Charles XII of Sweden against King Augustus II Mocnego (the Strong) to the great displeasure of Pope Clement XI. When King August II was deposed, he was regent of Poland until the arrival of Stanisław Leczynski, February 1704. The pope summoned him to Rome within three months and through a papal brief, dated June 10, 1705, prohibited him to pontificate; suspended him from the government of the archdiocese; and from the rights and privileges proper of the primatial dignity of Poland. His friendship and support for the Swedish, as well as his tolerance for Lutheranism, had hurt the pastoral attention of the faithful. On August 30, 1705, the pope appointed Theodore von Ludinghaus Wolff, titular bishop of Tripoli, coadjutor of Windau and Pilten, as administrator of the spiritual matters of the archdiocese.

Death. October 11, 1705, at 1:30 p.m., Danzig, where he had sought refuge for the serious problems affecting him. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Gniezno.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 273-275; Jujeczka, Stanisław. Klerycy z ziem polskich, litewskich i pruskich święceni w Rzymie (XVI – pocz. XX w.); Clerici ex terris Poloniae, Lithuaniae et Prussiae Romae seu Urbe ordinati (saec. XVI ad init. XX). Wrocław, 2018, p. 89, n. 279; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 373-374; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, p. 145-156; Kawecki, Roman. Kardynal Michal Stefan Radziejowski (1645-1705). Opole : Wydawnictwo Swietego Krzyza, 2005.

Webgraphy. His portrait, arms, photographs and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; biographical data, in Polish, Onet.plWiem - Portal Wiedzy; three engravings and two portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born on October 15, 1644.
(2) Some sources indicate that he was bishop of Kiovia (?) before being bishop of Ermland, but no information about that first diocese has been found.

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(30) 14. PETRUCCI, Orat., Pier Matteo (1636-1701)

Birth. May 20, 1636, Jesi. Of a noble family from Siena. Son of Giambattista Petrucci and Aurelia Stella. His first name is also listed as Piermatteo.

Education. Attended the University of Macerta, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law in 1652. Studied French, Spanish, and Greek, and music at the Oratory of Saint Philip of Neri in Jesi. Later, he studied Scriptures and Patristics, especially Saint Thomas Aquinas.

Early life. Secretary of Cardinal Alderano Cybo, bishop of Jesi. Entered the Congregation of the Oratory of Saint Philip of Neri, February 2, 1661.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1661. Preacher and professor of philosophy to the laity. Founded with Cardinal Cybo an institute for astray children. Charged with pacifying the Congregation of the Oratory of Venice. Superior of his congregation, April 8, 1678. They made him accept the promotion to the episcopate by holy obedience.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Jesi, April 14, 1681. Consecrated, April 20, 1681, Rome, by Cardinal Alderano Cybo, assisted by Giacomo Altoviti, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, and by Odoardo Cibo, titular archbishop of Seleucia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, June 9, 1687. His works on mysticism and spirituality were criticized by Father Paolo Segneri, S.J., and a theological-doctrinal debate took place in which the cardinal defended Quietist contemplation. Denounced for heresy, he was investigated by the Inquisition and as a result, in September 1687, 45 propositions taken from his works were proscribed. He immediately submitted and was absolved on December 17, 1687. The destruction of his writings was posted in the Index on February 5, 1688. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. On January 14, 1690, Orazio Perozzi, cleric from Camerino, was appointed vicar apostolic of Jesi in place of the cardinal, who was residing in Rome. Resigned government of the diocese, without reserving a pension for himself, January 21, 1691. The pope assigned him a pension and disregarded the offer to resign the cardinalate and retire to his congregation. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. He lived an exemplary life of prayer and fasting. Named by the pope camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals on December 7, 1693, at the death of Cardinal Lorenzo Brancati; elected, January 4, 1694 until January 10, 1695. Apostolic visitor to the confraternity of the SS. Nunziata, to the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, to the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, and its monastery, and to the diocese of San Severino. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. He founded the monastery of SS. Trinità, of Carmelite nuns, in Jesi. He was a poet and an artist.

Death. July 5, 1701, at 3 a.m., Montefalco, diocese of Spoleto. Exposed and buried in the church of Beata Clara in that city.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 282-284; Garrido, Pablo María. Un censor español de Molinos y de Petrucci : Luis Pérez de Castro, O. Carm., 1636-1689. Rome : Institutum Carmelitanum, 1988. (Textus et studia historica Carmelitana ; v. 15.); Urieli, Costantino. "Il Cardinale Pier Matteo Petrucci il vescovo "quietista" di Jesi", in "Acetica cristiana e ascetica giansenista nelle regione d'influenza avellanita", Atti del I Convegno del Centro di Studi Avellaniti, Fonte Avellana, 1977, pp. 127-188; Zovatto, Pietro. "Petrucci (Pier Mathieu)". Dictionnaire de spiritualité, XII/1, Paris, 1984, 1217-1227.

Webgraphy. Biography by Sabrina Stroppa, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 82 (2015), Treccani; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(31) 15. SALAZAR GUTIÉRREZ DE TOLEDO, O. de M., Pedro de (1630-1706)

Birth. 1630, Málaga, Spain. Of a poor and obscure family. His last name is also listed as Salazar y Arciniega.

Education. Enter the Order of Our Lady of Mercy (Mercedarians). Studied at houses of formation of the Order.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood (no date found). In his order, lector of philosophy and theology; secretary of the master general; and master general. Royal preacher. Qualificator of the Inquisition.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Salamanca, June 2, 1681. Consecrated, September 1681, Royal Chapel, Madrid, by Juan Asensio Barrios, O. de M., bishop of Avila.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686. Transferred to the see of Córdoba, September 16, 1688. Did not participate in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, November 14, 1689. Ambassador of Spain before the Holy See; never occupied the post because the duke of Medinacelli, his predecessor, preferred to keep the position. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. August 15, 1706, Córdoba. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Córdoba.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 284-285; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 221.

Webgraphy. Biography by Luis Vázquez Fernández, OdeM, in Spanish, DB~e, Diccionario Biográfico Español; his engraving by Carlo Maratti and Jacques Blondeau, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb, cathedral of Córdoba, Spain, Requiem Datenbank.

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(32) 16. FÜRSTENBERG, Wilhelm Egon von
(1629-1704)

Birth. December 2, 1629, Helligenberg, Swabia. Of a noble family. His father was a general of the Imperial army. Relative of Cardinal Friedrich Egon Fürstenberg (1879).

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. Ordained to the subdiaconate, April 18, 1649. Canon of Cologne and Salzburg. Minister of health of prince Maximilian Heinrich of Cologne.

Episcopate. Nominated bishop of Metz by its cathedral chapter, September 1663. Was not confirmed by the pope. Prince of the realm, 1664. In 1674, because of his intrigues to prevent the peace with Holland, although he was the plenipotentiary of the archbishop-elector of Cologne, was imprisoned in Vienna by order of the emperor and then sent to Neustadt where he was sentenced to death. The papal nuncio intervened in his favor and asked for mercy. He was spared, and in 1679, after the signing of the peace treaty, set free (1). Elected bishop of Strassbourg by its cathedral chapter, June 8, 1682. Preconized, January 11, 1683. Consecrated, May 1, 1683, Cologne, by Ercole Visconti, titular archbishop of Damieta, nuncio in Cologne, assisted by Jean-Henri Anethan, titular bishop of Hierapoli, auxiliary of Cologne, and by Maximilien Bormann, titular bishop of Diocleziana, auxiliary of Trier.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686. Expecting to become elector of Cologne and prince-bishop of Liège, with the support of King Louis XIV of France, he fixed his residence in Modave. Neither one of his hopes materialized and instead, for his strong support of France, he was declared enemy of the empire. Elected coadjutor of Cologne by its cathedral chapter with 19 of 24 votes, 1687. In 1688, at the death of Maximilian Heinrich von Bayern, archbishop of Cologne, the coadjutor did not succeed automatically but there was another election in which he obtained 13 votes and Joseph Clemens von Bayern obtained 11. The emperor objected to his election, the pope agreed, and von Bayern was named archbishop of Cologne. Named by the king of France abbot of Saint-Germain des Prés in 1690, and of Fécamp, of Montmédy, of Stavelo, of Saint-Evroult de Evreaux, of Gorze, of Saint-Vincent de Laon and of Barbeaux. Participated in the Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, November 14, 1689. Did not participate in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. April 9 (1), 1704, abbey of Saint-Germain des Prés, Paris. Exposed and buried in that abbey.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 285-286; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 307-308; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 13, 46 and 98.

Webgraphy. Portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; engraving, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; portrait, engraving and biography, in German, Wikipedia; engravings and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 285, indicates that these events never happened and that he not only sought refuge with the elector of Cologne but also had the protection of the king of France.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 13, 46 and 98; Chapeau, , p. 307-308, says that he died on April 10, 1704.

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(33) 17. DENHOFF, Jan Kazimierz (1649-1697)

Birth. June 6, 1649 (1), Warsaw, Poland. Son of Teodoro Denhoff and Katarzyna Franciszka Bessen. He had two brothers, Henryk and Franciszek Teodor; and two sisters, Elżbieta and Urszula. His godfather was former cardinal and Polish King Jan II Kazimierz Waza. His last name is also listed as Dönhoff.

Education. Studied in Paris, France.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Gniezno. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Warsaw. Abbot of Chiaratomba. Generously helped those affected by the plague in Warsaw. Sent to Rome by King Jan III Sobieski, to move Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689) to a greater participation in the league against the Turks. The pope asked him to stay in Rome and appointed him papal prelate. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 28, 1685. Preceptor in commendam of the archhospital S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, June 30, 1685. Minister of the King of Poland before the Holy See.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, September 30, 1686.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cesena, November 10, 1687. Consecrated, December 14, 1687, church of Santo Spirto, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Pio, bishop of Sabina, assisted by Odoardo Cibo, titular archbishop of Seleucia, and by Prospero Bottini, titular archbishop of Mira. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1695 until January 2, 1696. Resigned government of the diocese, June 2, 1697.

Death. June 20, 1697, at 11:30 p.m., in his Roman palace in front of the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place on June 22, 1697; and buried in front of the main altar of the Trinitarian church of S. Carlo alle quattro Fontane, in monte Quirinale, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 287-288; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 73-74; Nitecki, Piotr. Kardynałowie Kosścioła w Polsce. Częstochowa : Kuria Metropolitalna w Częstochowie, Tygodnik Katolicki Niedziela, 1999, p. 46-47; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 133-143; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 13, 46, 59 and 134.

Webgraphy. His portrait, arms and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his tomb, church of S. Carlo alle quattro Fontane, in monte Quirinale, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale; engraving and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Prokop, Polscy kardynałowie p. 133; and Nitecki, Kardynałowie Kosścioła w Polsce, p. 46. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born in 1650.

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(34) 18. SÁENZ DE AGUIRRE, O.S.B., José (1630-1699)

Birth. March 24, 1630, Logroño, Spain.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict of Monte Cassino (Benedictines); studied at the University of Salamanca, where he earned a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). For fifteen years, director of studies of the monastery of San Vicente, Salamanca; and later its abbot. President general of his order in Spain. Prior of the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla of Suso, La Rioja. Professor of dogmatic theology and Sacred Scriptures at the University of Salamanca. Censor and secretary of the Supreme Council of the Inquisition in Spain. Strongly refuted the propositions of the Declaration of the Gallican clergy of 1682, publishing Auctoritas infallibilis et Summa Cathedra Sancti Petri.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated September 7, 1686; he entered Rome incognito on June 18, 1687, after a two-month trip through Barcelona, Narbonne, Avignon, Milan and Bologna; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina on November 10, 1687. He lived in Rome from 1687 until his death. He was member of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, and of the Congregations of the Council, of Rites and of the Index. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, August 30, 1694. His bad health during the second half of 1694 made the cardinal go to Naples in February 1695 and remained there for more than one year, only travelling to the Benedictine abbey of Monte Cassino. He wrote extensively in philosophy, theology and ecclesiastical history and was one of the most distinguished Spanish theologians of the late 17th century. His hard work debilitated his health and for many years he suffered from epilepsy.

Death. August 19, 1699, near 2 a.m., of an apoplexy, in the palace of the Magnanelli, in piazza Spagna, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Rome, where the funeral took place on August 21, 1699, and buried in the chapel of S. Ildefonso, in that church. At his request, his heart was buried in the church of Monte Cassino.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 288-290; Prado García, Nicolás. Cardenal Aguirre (1630-1699). De la celda a la púrpura. Madrid : Fundación Universitaria Española, 2004; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp.14, 44 and 47; Zaragoza Pascual, Ernesto. "Correspondencia epistolar entre el cardenal Aguirre y el rey Carlos II sobre la definición dogmática de la Inmaculada Concepción y la causa de sor María de Ágreda (1697-1699)", Salmanticensis 54 (2007), pp. 89-121.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography by Miguel C. Vivancos Gómez, OSB, in Spanish, DB~e, Diccionario Biográfico Español; biography by John Joseph A'Becket, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his engraving by Jacques Blondeau, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engravings, Araldica Vaticana; "El cardenal José Sáenz de Aguirre en el contexto cultural romano de finales del siglo XVII" by José María Domínguez, Berceo 166 (2014), pp. 31-62.

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(35) 19. COLLOREDO, Orat., Leandro
(1639-1709)

Birth. April 15, 1639, castle of Colloredo di Montalbano, diocese of Gorizia, Friuli. Son of Fabio II Colloredo and Claudia Colloredo. Baptized on the same day he was born. Of a noble family. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Leandro di Porzia, O.S.B.Cas. (1728).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta (1). Entered the Congregation of the Oratory of S. Philip of Neri in Rome when he was eighteen years old.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Examiner of bishops. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index. Declined the appointed to the metropolitan see of Avignon and only by obedience accepted the promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the title of San Pietro in Montorio, September 30, 1686. Penitentiary major, February 28, 1688 to January 11, 1709. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Opted for the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, November 7, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 2, 1696 until January 14, 1697. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 27, 1705.

Death. January 11 (2), 1709, at 7:15 p.m., Rome. On January 14, 1709, his body was transferred from his palace, with a solemn cavalry, to the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome. The funeral and burial took place in that church.

Bibliograohy. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 290-295; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp.14, 48 and 49.

Webgraphy. Biography by Franca Petrucci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 27 (1982), Treccani; his genealogy, A1 D3, Genealogy EU; his genealogy, D2 G1 H2 I4, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his tomb in S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Australian National University; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Some sources ignore or deny that he was a member of the order.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 14; his second genealogy, linked above, indicates that he died on January 8, 1709.

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(36) 20. CARAFA DELLA SPINA, Fortunato Ilario (1630?-1697)

Birth. 1630? (al. 1632), Naples. Of the family of the princes della Roccella. Eighth of the fifteen children of Girolamo Carafa della Spina, prince of Roccella and of the Holy Roman Empire, and Diana Vettori, niece of Pope Paul V, on her mother's side. The other siblings were Fabrizio, Carlo (cardinal), Gregorio (grand master of the Sovereign Order of Malta in 1680), Giacomo (archbishop of Rossano), Scipione (bishop of Aversa), Francesco Maria (cleric regular), Francesco, Margherita, Maria Felice (a nun), Francesca, and four other children. Brother of Cardinal Carlo Caraffa della Spina (1664). Nephew of Simeone Caraffa, archbishop of Messina. His mother named him Fortunate because of the good fortune of the prediction of the Servant of God Father Francesco Olimpio, Theat., that the child was going to be a cardinal (1). Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Carlo Carafa (1555); Diomede Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844). His last name is also listed as Carafa only.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Messina.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 2, 1686, with dispensation for not yet having received the minor orders; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, July 7, 1687. Granted permission to receive the sacred orders outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, September 16, 1686.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aversa, July 7, 1687. Consecration, October 5, 1687, Rome, Carmelite church of Montesanto, by Cardinal Savo Millini, assisted by Francesco Pannocchieschi d'Elci, archbishop of Pisa. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Legate in Romandiola, March 9, 1693; resigned legation a year later. Representative of Spain before the Holy See for the affairs of the viceroyship of Naples.

Death. January 16, 1697 (2), near 8 a.m., of an apoplexy, in Porticos, near Naples. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Aversa.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 295-297; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 185.

Webgraphy. Biography by Luisa Bertoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani; engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 296, the occasion for his promotion to the cardinalate was none but extraordinary. Prince Carlo of Butera planned to marry his very young daughter to D. Fortunato Caraffa, her uncle. Fortunato, who was in Rome as extraordinary ambassador of the king of Naples to present the pope the Chinea, begged the pope for a dispensation. The pope denied the dispensation because he had received secret information that the young girl did not want to marry Fortunato because he was over fifty years old. And Cardella adds, that the pope, reflecting that the husband to be was an ecclesiastic, even if only a cleric, volle de dar ricompensa all'amarezza della montovata negativa, creandolo impensatamente ad istanza del Re di Spagna Prete Cardinale... (wanting to compensate him for the bitterness of the negative answer, created him unexpectedly, at the request of the king of Spain, a cardinal priest).
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 14. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he died on January 16, 1696.

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(37) 21. CORSI, Domenico Maria (1633-1697)

Birth. 1633 (al. 1637), Florence. Of the marquises of Cajazzo. Son of Giovanni Corsi and Lucrezia Salviati. Another cardinal of the family was Cosimo Barnaba Corsi (1842).

Education. Completed his studies under the direction of his uncle Lorenzo Corsi, domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII. Vice-legate in Urbino. Governor of the city of Fermo. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president delle Armi in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. The Sacred College of Cardinals elected him governor of the conclave at the death of Pope Clement X. Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, September 30, 1686. Legate in Romandiola, March 3, 1687.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rimini, July 7, 1687. Consecrated, August 17, 1687, at the cathedral of Rimini, by Gianfrancesco Riccamonti, O.S.B., bishop of Cervia, assisted by Vincenzo Cavalli, bishop of Bertinoro, and by Bernardino Belluzzi, bishop of Montefeltro. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. His legation was prorogated for three years, October 27, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 3, 1696. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 14, 1697 until his death.

Death. November 6, 1697, Rimini. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Rimini, with a brief epitaph that he had himself composed.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 297-298; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XVII, 260.

Webgraphy. Biography by Enrico Stumpo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 29 (1983), Treccani; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(38) 22. NEGRONI, Giovanni Fancesco
(1629-1713)

Birth. October 3, 1629, Genoa. Of a senatorial family. Eldest of the six children of Giovanni Battista Negroni and Placida Gentile. His first name is also listed as Giovanni Francesco; and his last name as Negorne. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733).

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia, where he obtained a doctorate.

Early life. Governor of the cities of Terni, Fabriano, Jesi, Spoleto, Frosinone, and Orvieto (1664), and vice-legate in the provinces of Romandiola, Umbria and Capagna, in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president of the Annona, 1669. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, 1681.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, September 30, 1686.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Faenza, July 7, 1687. Consecrated, July 20, 1687, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Barbarigo, archbishop-bishop of Corneto e Montefiascone, assisted by Giovanni Battista Spinola, bishop of Luni e Sarzana, and by (no information found). Legate in Bologna, November 10, 1687. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII; he had to leave the conclave because of illness on October 4, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, January 2, 1696. Resigned the government of his diocese, Faenza, November 11, 1697. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. January 1, 1713, at 8 a.m., in his Roman palace. Exposed in the Jesuit church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, Rome, where the funeral took place on January 3, 1713, and buried in the chapel of S. Francesco Saverio, which he had erected, in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 298-300; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 662.

Webgraphy. Biography by Massino Carlo Giannini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 78 (2013), Treccani; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(39) 23. ASTALLI, Fulvio (1655-1721)

Birth. July 29, 1655, Sambuco, his family fief, diocese of Tivoli. Nephew of Cardinals Francesco Maidalchini (1647) and Camillo Astalli-Pamphili (1650).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president of the archives in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. President delle Armi in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, September 30, 1686. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate and for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals, September 2, 1686. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, May 17, 1688. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, October 19, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, ad interim, September 24, 1693. Legate in Urbino, September 28, 1693 to 1696. Legate in Romandiola, September 24, 1696. Legate in Ferrara, November 24, 1698; legation prorogated for a triennium, February 10, 1701 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Opted for the order of priests and the title of Ss. Giulitta e Quirico, February 19, 1710. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, May 7, 1710.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, April 16, 1714. Consecrated, May 13, 1714, church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Pope Clement XI, assisted by Cardinal Ferdinando d'Adda and by Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia and Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 26, 1719.

Death. January 14, 1721, at 5 a.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Aracolei, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the chapel of S. Francesco Solano in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 300-301.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 4 (1962), Treccani; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 300, indicates that during the occupation of its territory by Imperial and French troops, he was suspended from the exercise of his legation and for several months had to be away from it.

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(40) 24. CAVALIERI, Gasparo (1648-1690)

Birth. September 22, 1648, Rome. Of an illustrious family. Son of Marquis Emilio Cavalieri and Clelia, daughter of the duke of Sannesio,

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano together with his yourger brother Francesco. He was heir to the name and fortune of this branch of the family.

Early life. Worked in the Roman tribunals during the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president delle milizie.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, September 30, 1686. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate, September 2, 1686. Received the minor orders, October 19, 1686; the subdiaconate, October 20, 1686; and the diaconate, October 27, 1686.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1686.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Capua, July 7, 1687. Consecrated, November 9, 1687, church of S. Maria in Vaillicella, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparo Carpegna, assisted by Francesco Casati, titular archbishop of Trapezus, and by Prospero Bottini, titular archbishop of Mira. Transferred to the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 17, 1688. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Transferred to the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, November 28, 1689.

Death. August 17, 1690, of podagra, in his Roman palace. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, where the funeral took place on August 19, 1690, and buried in the chapel of S. Gregorio, of his family, in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 302.

Webgraphy. Biography by Luciano Osbat, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 22 (1979), Treccani; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

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(41) 25. SLUSE, Johannes Walter (1628-1687)

Birth. January 14, 1628, Visé (or Liège), Flanders. Younger brother of René-François de Sluse, renowned mathematician. His first name is also listed as Gautier; and his last name as Sluze; and as Slusio.

Education. Studied in Rome.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Provisor of the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs at the death of an uncle who also occupied this post.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 2, 1686; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, September 30, 1686. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate, September 2, 1686. Granted license to receive the sacred orders outside the Ember days and without time intervals between them, September 5, 1686. He had a valuable library, the Bibliotheca Slusiana, and its catalog was published in Rome in 1690 by François Deseine.

Death. July 16 (or 17), 1687, at 3 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, where the funeral took place on July 19, 1687, and, in the afternoon, buried on the right side of his family's chapel of S. Anna, in that church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 302-303.

Webgraphy. His engraving and brief biographical data, in French, Collections artistiques de l'Université de Liège (Belgique) Galerie Wittert; his tomb in S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, The Australian National University; engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Joseph Testana, Alan Wofsy Fine Arts.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his funeral monument, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

D · O · M ·
IOANNI GVALTERO SLVSIO LEODIEN
S · R · E · DIACONO CARDINALI
ANIMI ATQVE INGENII DOTIBVS CVMVLATISSIMO
MORIBVS SAPIENTIA PIETATE PRAESTANTISSIMO
LARGITATE IN EGENOS BENEFICENTIA IN OMNES EFFVSISSIMO
CVIVS
DOCTRINAE INSTRVCTISSIMA BIBLIOTHECA
PRVDENTIAE DIFFICILLIMA MVNIA
MERITORVM EMINENTISSIMA DIGNITAS
PENE IMPAR ARGVMENTVM
STVDIVM VERO COMMVNE BONVM
PVRPVRA COMMVNE GAVDIVM
OBITVS COMMVNE DETRIMENTVM
PROPE SVPRA FIDEM ET EXEMPLVM
EXTITERE
VIXIT ANNOS LIX · MENSES V DIES XXIV
OBIIT A · Æ · C · MDCLXXXVII · NONIS IVLII
FRATRI AMANTISSIMO MONVMENTVM
P · C ·
PETRVS ALOYSIVS SLVVIVS S · R · I LIBER BARO DOMINVS DE BIHAIN
HEBRONVAL SER · PRINCIPI ELECTORI COLONIEN · PRINCIPI LEODIEN
A CONSILIIS

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(42) 26. MEDICI, Francesco Maria de' (1660-1711)

Birth. November 12, 1660, Florence. Youngest child of Grand Duke Ferdinando II of Tuscany and Vittoria Della Rovere. He was baptized the following November 15, in the private chapel of palazzo Pitti, by the bishop of Fiesole, Roberto Strozzi; the godfather was Cardinal Carlo de' Medici (1615), his grand uncle, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.At a very young age, he was destined to an ecclesiastical career.

Education. He was educated by preceptors in his father's court

Early life. Grand prior of the Sovereign Order of Malta in Pisa. Abbot commendatario of S. Galgano, Siena. Abbot commendatario of S. Stefano, Carrara, 1675. According to a family tradition, he was promoted to the cardinalate at a young age.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 2, 1686. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate, September 2, 1686. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, July 9, 1687. Remained in Florence, in his villa of Lappeggi, devoting himself to a life non propriamente religiosa, fatta di divertimenti sfrenati e di mondanità. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Protector of Germany from 1689 until 1703 when he changed sides and became protector of France and Spain for which he was named abbot of Marchiennes in 1703, and of Saint-Amand in 1708. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Granted permission to receive the sacred orders outside the Ember days and without time intervals of time between them, April 24, 1703. Resigned cardinalate on June 19, 1709. Named prince of Siena. Married Eleonore Luisa Gonzaga (1686-1742), duchess of Guastalla, daughter of Vincenzo Gonzaga, on July 14, 1709. They did not have children (1).

Death. February 3, 1711, in Florence. The exequies took place in the basilica of S. Lorenzo, Florence, where he was buried. In his will, he left his properties to his nephew Gian Gastone and to the Congregation of the Poor of S. Giovanni Battista, with usufruct to Gian Gastone's wife, Eleanor, and his brother Cosimo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 303.

Webgraphy. Biography by Maria Pia Paoli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 73 (2009), Treccani; biographical data, in Italian, francescoredi.it; his genealogy, B2 C4 G5 J4, euweb.cz; engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to the biographical data linked above, il progetto fallì miseramente, dato che la sposa si rifiutr ostinatamente di assolvere ai propri doveri di sposa e di madre (the project failed miserably, given that the wife obstinately refused to fulfill the proper duties of wife and mother).

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(43) 27. ESTE, Rinaldo d' (1655-1737)

Birth. June 25, 1655, Modena. Son of Duke Francesco I of Modena and his third wife, Lucrezia Barberini, daughter of the prince of Palestrina. Brother in law of King James II of England. Nephew of Cardinals Carlo Barberini (1653) and Rinaldo d'Este (1641). Other cardinals of the family are Ippolito I d'Este (1493); Ippolito II d'Este (1538); Luigi d'Este (1561); and Alessandro d'Este (1599).

Education. Studied science and philosophy in Modena..

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 2, 1686. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate, and for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals, September 2, 1686. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, December 20, 1688. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. On March 21, 1695, Pope Innocent XI accepted his resignation from the cardinalate to preserve the d'Este family. In 1694 the Pope had granted him dispensation to succeed his nephew Francis II, who had died on September 6 of that year, without issue, as Duke of Modena. On November 18, 1695, he married Carlotta Felicita, princess of Brunswick and Luxembourg, sister-in-law of the emperor. They had several children.

Death. October 22, 1737, of an apoplexy, in Modena. Buried, October 29, 1737, in the church of S. Vincenzo Martire, Modena, near the tomb of his grandmother Elizabeta di Savoia. There is no sign indicating where his tomb is.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 262-271; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 303-304.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, B7 F5, euweb.cz; his arms and engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving by Iacobus Blondeaw, late 18th century, Alan Wofsy Fine Arts.

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