The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)
Consistory of September 27, 1819 (XVI)

(83) 1. CUNHA E MENEZES, Carlos da (1759-1825)

Birth. April 9, 1759, Santa Engrácia, Lisbon, Portugal. Son of Pedro José da Cunha de Mendoça e Menezes, senhor of Valdigem, and Joana Catarina de Melo. His second last name is also listed as Meneses.

Education. Studied at the University of Coimbra, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law on April 29, 1784.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 4, 1784. Primicerius of the patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon. Vicar capitular of Lisbon. Member of the Apostolic Party.

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Lisbon, August 23, 1819. Consecrated, December 19, 1819, Lisbon, by José António Pinto de Mendoça Arrais, bishop of Guarda, assisted by João Binet Pincio, bishop of Lamego, and by Francisco da Nossa Senhora da Luz Chacim, O.F.M.Disc., bishop of Macau. Received the pallium and the title of inquisitor on the following December 23.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 27, 1819; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. President of the Council of Regency during the absence in Brazil of King João VI of Portugal, from 1818 until September 15, 1820. Did not participate in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII.

Death. December 14, 1825, Lisbon. Buried, patriarchal vault, church of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon (1) (2).

Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 14 and 242.

Webgraphy. Brief biography, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses, under "D. CARLOS DA CUNHA E MENEZES - 6º Cardeal Patriarca de Lisboa", patriarcado de Lisboa; his engraving by Antonio José da Silva, Biblioteca Nacional Digital, Portugal; another engraving by A. J. Santos Casa de Sarmento, Centro de Estudos do Património, Unidade Cultural da Universidade do Minho, Guimarães, Portugal; his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:


(2) He was the first patriarch of Lisbon to be buried in the Pantheon for Patriarchs in the monastery of São Vicente de Fora, a tradition which has since been followed for all his successors.

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(84) 2. GUERRIERI GONZAGA, Cesare (1749-1832)

Birth. March 2, 1749, Mantua. Of an aristocratic family from Lombardy. Son of Marquis Bonaventura Guerrieri Gonzaga, an officer of the imperial army, and Marchioness Lucia Valenti Gonzaga. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Silvio Valenti Gonzaga (1738). Nephew of Cardinal Luigi Valenti Gonzaga (1776).

Education. Studied at Collegio Nazareno, Rome, from 1758 to 1767.

Early life. In April 1776, he was sent by Pope Pius VI to Madrid as ablegato to bring the red biretta to his uncle Cardinal Luigi Valenti Gonzaga, who had been promoted to the cardinalate. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate of His Holiness and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on June 5, 1778. He did not have an active career in Rome and retired to his family in Mantua, Florence, and later, with his nephew Marquis Enrico Gualterio di Corgnolo, to Orvieto during the two French occupations of the Papal States. Dean of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. After the papal restoration in Rome, he was named commendatario of the Archhospital of Santo Spirito in Sassia, Rome, March 9, 1816. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, July 22, 1816 until his promotion to the cardinalate; pro-treasurer from his promotion until the appointment of Belisario Cristaldi on June 4, 1820. President of the Congregation of the Census, July 22, 1816. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 27, 1819; received the red hat, September 30; and the deaconry of S. Adriano, December 17, 1819. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Pope Leo XII, his long time friend, named him pro-secretary of Memorials on November 15, 1824; occupied the post until 1829. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 13, 1826 until April 9, 1827. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Named secretary of Memorials, April 1829. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. February 5, 1832, of an apoplexy, in palazzo Giorgini in via Magnanapoli, Rome, where he resided. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried next to the tomb of his grand uncle, Cardinal Valenti Gonzaga, in the Franciscan church of S. Bonaventura alla Polveriera, in Monte Palatino, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 399-400; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 14, 45 and 50.

Webgraphy. Biography by Fabrizio Capanni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 60 (2003), Treccani.

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