(49) 1. LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE-LAURAGUAIS, Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles de (1768-1851)
Birth. August 14, 1768, Castle of Auzeville, diocese of Toulouse, France. Third of the four children of Gabriel de La Tour de Saint-Paulet (ca. 1730/35-1800), seigneur de Saint-Paulet, and Marie Angélique Augustine Armande d'Aumale (1735-1774). The other children were Adélaïde de La Tour-Saint-Paulet; Joseph Denis Édouard Bernard, called de La Tour de Lauragais de La Tour de Saint-Paulet, baron of the Empire (1767-1841); and Charles de La Tour-Saint-Paulet (1770-1822). There is a subtle criticism in many sources for the use of the surname d’Auvergne added to that of La Tour, when that family was surnamed in the 18th century La Tour-Saint Paulet. In fact, his right to use d'Auvergne was subject of several lawsuits and according to Louis Lainé (Archives genealogiques et historiques de la noblesse de France, VII, 1841), in the end the royal court of Orléans accepted his right, which he registered as of 1807, based on the extinction of the La Tour d'Auvergne family, so that his last name had become public domain.
Education. Studied at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris. He was baron of the Empire from 1768 until 1851. He received the subdiaconate on sous-diaconat March 4, 1791; and the diaconate on April 22, 1792.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1792. He was apparently taken from the house of an aunt in Aumale in Amiens and he was arrested twice and then released. After the 9th Thermidor, he abandoned the ecclesiastical habit to become a secretary, with the rank of an officer, at the home of a military man, but he resumed it as early as 1801. Vicar of Amiens.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Arras, May 6, 1802. He took the oath of fidelity to the Emperor on May 9. Consecrated, Sunday May 16, 1802, church of Saint-Roch, Paris, by Jean-Baptiste Bessuéjouls de Roquelaure, archbishop of Mechelen, assisted by Jean-Baptiste de Maillé, bishop of Rennes, and by Étienne Fallot de Beaumont, bishop of Gand. At thirty three, he became the youngest bishop of France after the signing of the Concordat of 1801.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 23, 1839. Declined the nominations to Avignon, Lyon, Cambrai and Paris (1840). He was decorated with the grand-cross of the Légion d’honneur in 1843. Received the red hat on February 12, 1846; and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura on April 16, 1846. Did not participate in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX.
Death. July 20, 1851, Arras. Exposed and buried in the chaepl of the Virgin in the cathedral of Arras.
-Catéchisme du diocèse d'Arras, publié par ordre de monseigneur Hugues-Robert Jean Charles de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais, évêque d'Arras, pour être enseigné dans son diocèse. Boulogne : Ve Olivier-Dolet, 1815; fifteen editions were published between 1815 and 1840;
-Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 371-371;
-La Tour d'Auvergne Lauraguais, Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles. Constitutions et règlement général du séminaire épiscopal d'Arras. Arras, 1809;
-La Tour d'Auvergne Lauraguais, Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles. Mandement de Son Eminence Mgr le Cardinal, évêque d'Arras, invitant ses diocésains a offrir a Sa Sainteté un hommage digne d'elle, et que sa situation actuelle permet de déposer respectueusement a ses pieds. Arras : A. Brissy, 1849;
-La Tour d'Auvergne Lauraguais, Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles. Mandement pour le carême de l'an de grâce 1846. Des intérêts temporels et des intérêts éternels. Arras : Brissy, 1846;
-Planque, Désire. Oraison funèbre de son Eminence Mgr. Hugues-Robert-Jean Charles de la Tour-d'Auvergne-Lauraguais, évêque d'Arras, prononcée dans l'Église Cathédrale, le 22 octobre 1851. Arras : Brissy, 1851;
-Lacroix, Georges. Un cardinal de l'Église d'Arras : Charles de La Tour d'Auvergne. 49 ans d'épiscopat concordataire. Lens : Imp. Centrale de l’Artois, 1965;
-Lesueur, Émile. Le Cardinal de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais, le roi des évêques, 1768-1851. Paris : Payot, 1927;
-Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 31, 39 and 93.
Webgraphy. Biography, in French, Wikipédia; his genealogy, in French, Geneanet; his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; 14 août 1768 : naissance de Charles de La Tour d’Auvergne, évêque et cardinal d’Arras, Les Archives du Pas-de-Calais.
(50) 2. MASTAI FERRETTI, Giovanni Maria (1792-1878)
Birth. May 13, 1792, Senigaglia. Ninth child of Count Girolamo Mastai Ferretti (1750-1833), who was several times gonfaloniere of Senigaglia between 1784 and 1807, and Caterina Solazzi di Faro (1764-1842). Nephew of Andrea Mastai-Ferretti (1751-1822), bishop of Pesaro (1806-1822). Baptized on the same day of his birth, his full name was Giovanni Maria Giambattista Pietro Pellegrino Isidoro. Great-grand nephew of Cardinal Pietro Girolamo Guglielmi (1759).
Education. Initial studies at the Piarist College, Volterra (classical education, 1802-1809); then, went to Rome to study philosophy and theology but had to leave in 1810 because of the political disturbances; returned in 1814; asked for admission to the Papal Noble Guard; because of epileptic seizures, was refused admission; studied at the Roman Seminary, Rome (theology, 1814-1818). His epileptic condition disappeared.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 10, 1819, Rome. Spiritual director of the orphan asylum Tata Giovanni, Rome. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in Chile, 1823-1825. In Rome, canon of S. Maria in Via Lata; director of San Michele hospital.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Spoleto, May 21, 1827. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 1, 1827. Consecrated, June 3, 1827, church of San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Xaverio Castiglioni, bishop of Frascati, assisted by Giacomo Sinibaldi, titular archbishop of Damietta and by Antonio Piatti, titular archbishop of Trebisonda. Transferred to the see of Imola, with personal title of archbishop, December 17, 1832.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 23, 1839; published in the consistory of December 14, 1840; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, December 17, 1840. Participated in the conclave of 1846 and was elected pope.
Papacy. Elected Pope Pius IX, June 16, 1846, Quirinal Palace, Rome. Cardinal Karl Kajetan Gaisruck, archbishop of Milan, arrived after the election, thus too late to present the veto of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria against him. Crowned, June 21, 1846, Rome. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese of Imola, June 21, 1846. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, November 9, 1846. Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, December 8, 1854. Celebrated the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870, which had to be interrupted because of the Franco-Prussian War; during the council, the dogma of papal infallibility was defined. Lost the territory of the Papal States because of the unification of the Kingdom of Italy, 1870-1871. Created 123 cardinals in 23 consistories. His has been the longest pontificate after Saint Peter's.
Death. February 7, 1878, Vatican. Exposed and buried, on February 13, 1878, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; On July 13, 1881, his remains were transferred to the basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome.
Beatification. The diocesan process of his beatification was started on February 11, 1907 by Pope Pius X. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 3, 2000, together with Pope John XXIII. His feast is celebrated on February 7.
-Brennan, Richard. A popular life of our late Holy Father, Pope Pius the Ninth : together with a sketch of his successor, Pope Leo the Thirteenth drawn from the most reliable authorities. Ninth edition. New York : Benziger Brothers, 1878;
-Chiron, Yves. Pie IX, pape moderne. Bitche : Clovis, 1995; -Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II;
-Le gouvernement pontifical sous Pie XI. Pratiques romaines et gestion de l'universel. Études réunies par Laura Pettinaroli. Rome : École française de Rome, 2013. (Collection de l'École française de Rome, 467);
-Hasler, August. How the pope became infallible : Pius IX and the politics of persuasion. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1981. Translation of Wie der Papst unfehlbar wurde. Introd. by Hans Küng ; translated by Peter Heinegg;
-Howard, Thomas Albert. The Pope and the professor : Pius IX, Ignaz von Döllinger, and the quandary of the modern age. Oxford ; New York, NY : Oxford University Press, 2017;
-Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 309-311;
-Martina, Giacomo. "Pio IX, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 560-575;
Messori, Vittorio. Kidnapped by the Vatican? The unpublished memoirs of Edgardo Mortara. Translated by Michael J. Miller. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 2017;
-More than a prophet : day-by-day with Pio Nono : being timely thoughts to tame the troubled times. Altadena, Calif. : Benziger Sisters, ©1978;
-Pagano, Sergio. "La mancata pubblicazione dell'opera 'Pio IX e il Risorgimento italiano' di Giuseppe Clementi ed Edoardo Soderini", in Dall'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Città del Vaticano, 2009, pp. 279-434. (Miscellanea di testi, saggi e inventari, IV);
-Parocchi, Lucido M. Pio IX caro a Dio e agli uomini. A cura di Antonio Piolanti. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1986;
-Polverari, Alberto. Vita di Pio IX. III. Dal 1861 al 1878. Editrice la postulazione della causa di Pio IX, 1988;
-Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846);
Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 31, 42, 223 and 351;
-Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 3-23;
-Serafini, Alberto. Pio Nono: Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, dalla giovinezza alla morte nei suoi scritti e discorsi editi e inetiti.. 2 vols. Città del Vaticano : Poliglotta Vaticana, 1958;
-Thornton, Francis Beauchesne. Cross upon cross. The life of Pope Pius IX. New York : Benziger Brothers, 1955.
Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; photograph and biography, primary contributors: Ivor F. Burton and Douglas Woodruff, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography also in English; biography by Giacomo Martina, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 84 (2015), Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait; his photograph in color; his photodraw, The University of Texas at Austin Library, Austin, United States of America; his effigy on a coin, 1870, numismatica.it; his effigy on a medal, ca. 1850; his effigy on a medal commemorating the First Vatican Council, 1870; his portrait by Giovanni Battista Roberti, Collezione Cianfarani, Rome; gallery of photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his praying statue by Giacometti, the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; his lithograph by H. Jessen, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his portrait, in Arcadia Cleomene Metapeo, Museo di Roma, Palazzo Braschi, Rome; his engraving by Antonio Schiassi; illustrations and biography, in Italian, Istituto di Studi Storici Beato Pio IX, Rome; his portrait; his tomb, basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome; his statue by Ignazio Jacometti, papal basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Roman Churches, by Ralph Conde; Diario Della Venuta E Del Soggiorno In Napoli Di Sua Beatitudine Pio IX, P.M. per Stanislao D'Aloe. Napoli: Tip. Virgilio, [s.d.], Hathi Trust Digital Library, full view; Diario del soggiorno in Napoli di Sua Santità Pio IX. per Stanislao D'Aloe. Roma, Tipografia delle Scienze, 1850, Hathi Trust Digital Library, full view; Della munificenza di sua santità Papa Pio IX, felicemente regnante per il sacerdote Alessandro Atti. Roma : Pallotta, 1864, Hathi Trust Digital Library, full view; Pio Nono: Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, dalla giovinezza alla morte nei suoi scritti e discorsi editi e inetiti per Alberto Serafini, [Città del Vaticano]: Poliglotta Vaticana, 1958, Hathi Trust Digital Library, limited (search only) v.1; Il Conclave dal quale uscì Giovanni M. Mastai-Ferretti papa per Giovanni Cittadini. Napoli : Laurenziana, 1986, Hathi Trust Digital Library, limited (search only); Un grande Arcivescovo e Cardinale Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (Pio IX) : da lettere edite ed inedite e carteggi dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano e di Stato sui Moti Rivoluzionari del 1831 per Giovanni CiIttadini, Napoli: Laurenziana, 1988, Hathi Trust Digital Library, partial view; La Fuga E Il Soggiorno Di Pio IX Nel Regno Di Napoli per Giovanni Cittadini. Napoli: Laurenziana, 1989, Hathi Trust Digital Library, full view; El Papa Pío IX estuvo en Chile, El Marino, Pichelemu, 18 junio 2014; Beato Pio IX - 7 de febrero by Isabel Orellana Vilches, in Spanish, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 06 de febrero de 2015; L'ultimo Papa Re incontra Padre Pio by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 16/01/216; The lowest point in U.S.-Vatican relations will be hard to beat by Charles Collins, Crux, Rome, May 20, 2017; The man who fought papal infallibility by John W. O'Malley, S.J., America, The Jesuit review, June 13, 2017; The first Pope to have visited the American continent, vaticannews.va, 16 January 2018, 12:13, with audio; Revelan cómo Pío IX decidió proclamar dogma de la Inmaculada Concepción, ACI Prensa, 7 de febrero de 2018 12:54 pm, with video; El pionono: Un famoso postre inspirado en un Papa Beato by Walter Sánchez Silva, ACI Prensa, 7 de febrero de 2018 5:09 pm; Beato Pio IX: la sua causa di canonizzazione procede a passi spediti by Federico Piana, vaticannews.va, Città del Vaticano, 10 febbraio 2018, 14:20, with audio; Longest reigning pope (after St. Peter) might soon be canonized, Aleteia, Feb 18, 2018; A Reappreciation of Pope Pius IX by Father John P. Cush, National Catholic Register, Feb. 12, 2019; La chiesa che ispirò a Pio IX il dogma dell’Immacolata by Igor Traboni, L'Osservatore Romano, 13 dicembre 2019; Should we be celebrating? by John O'Loughlin Kennedy, La Croix International, July 16, 2020; Primato e infallibilità by Sergio Centofanti, L'Osservatore Romano, 17 luglio 2020; Porta Pia, “parve un crollo” ma il Papa ne uscì rafforzato, Vatican News, 19 settembre 2020, 14:02; Vaccini per tutti, vaccini per i poveri. Gli esempi di Pio VII e Pio IX by Andrea Tornielli, L'Osservatore Romano 07 maggio 2021; Incendio del "Ponte di ferro" a Roma. L'inaugurazione "a sopresa" di Papa Pio IX, Il Sismografo, domenica 3 ottobre 2021; Breccia di Porta Pia, un evento che ha cambiato la storia del Papato by Amedeo Lomonaco, Vatican News, Città del Vaticano, 20 aprile 2022, 15:15, with audio; Musings on possibly the greatest road not taken in papal history by John L. Allen Jr., Crux, Rome, Jul 3, 2022, with audio; D: Bonner Universität zeigt Rechenmaschine von Papst Pius IX., Vatican News, 09 Juli 2022, 13:02; Vatican II is back in the news, which begs a question: What was Vatican I? by Carl Bunderson, Catholic News Agency, Denver Newsroom, Oct 15, 2022 / 10:00 am; 5 datos sobre el Beato Pío IX: El Papa que murió “prisionero” en el Vaticano by Abel Camasca, ACI Prensa, 6 de febrero de 2023 / 6:17 p. m.; Hoy se celebra al Beato Papa Pío IX, el Papa que se declaró prisionero, ACI Prensa, 7 de febrero de 2023 / 12:01 a. m.
(51) 3. PIANETTI, Gaspare Bernardo (1780-1862)
Birth. February 7, 1780, Iesi. Eldest child of Count Angelo Pianetti (+1828) and Eleonora Buonaccorsi, from Macerata. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Simone Buonaccorsi (1763).
Education. Studied at Collegio Nazareno, Rome, from 1789; then at the University of Macerata, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on December 6, 1803; and later, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1804.
Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1804. Domestic prelate and referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura (August 1807). Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium (August 1807). Vicar of S. Maria ad Martyres (April 1808). He retired to Iesi during the French occupation of Rome. After the Restoration of the papal government, he was ponens of the Congregation of Good Governmente (December 1814). First counselor of the Court of the Government of Rome (March 1816); as such, he was interim pro-governor of Rome three times. Consultant of the Sacred Congregation of Rites (April 1816). Prelate of the Sacred Congregation of the Council (June 1816). Voter of the Tribunal of the Signature of Grace (January 1818). Auditor of the Holy Roman Rota (June 1820).
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella (now Tuscania), July 3, 1826. Consecrated, August 15, 1826, in the church S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Pope Leo XII, assisted by Filippo Filonardi, archbishop of Ferrara, and by Giuseppe Perugini, titiular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. In the same ceremony was consecrated Chiarissimo Falconieri Mellini, archbishop of Ravenna. future cardinal.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 23, 1839; published in the consistory of December 14, 1840; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, December 17, 1840. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, March 4, 1861. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, March 18, 1861. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals. March 18, 1861 until 1862. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Equestrian Orders.
Death. January 30, 1862, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, and buried, according to his will, in the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro (1). A memorial tabledt was placed in Viterbo's Duomo (2).
Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 31, 44 and 398; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 62; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 145.
Webgraphy. His portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his portrait, secolo XIX (1800-1899), bottega italiana, regione ecclesiastica Lazio, diocesi Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in web (BeWeB); his seal as a bishop, secolo XIX (1800-1899), bottega italiana, regione ecclesiastica Lazio, diocesi Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in web (BeWeB); his seal as a cardinal, secolo XIX (1800-1899), bottega italiana, regione ecclesiastica Lazio, diocesi Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in web (BeWeB); his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the inscription on his funeral monument, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
GASPAR · BERNARDVS · PIANETTI · MARCH ·
PATRIT · AESIN · CARD · TIT · XYSTI
QVEM · PIVS · VII · P · M · IN · PROTONOTARIOR · COLLEGIVM
ET · IN · SACR · CONSIL · LITIBI · IVDIC · ADLEGIT
LEO · XII · EPISC · VITERBIENS · ET · TVSCANIENS · DEDIT
GREGORIVS · XVI · PATREM · CARDINALEM
PIVS · IX · SVMMVM · MAGISTRVM · A · DIPLOMAT · DIXIT
DECESSIT · III · KAL · FEBR · MDCCCLXII
AETATIS · SVAE · LXXXII
DE · VITERBIENSIBVS · OPTIME · MERITVS
QVOS · LEGATIS · AMPLISSIMIS · EX · TESTAMENTO · DITAVIT
ALOIS · POLETTI · ARCH
INV · ET · DIREX
Birth. April 16, 1801, Amelia, diocese of Terni. Of a patrician family. Eldest of the two children of Count Giovanni Vannicelli (1764-1825), who held various municipal offices in Amelia and was provisional governor of Narni in 1801, and Countess Maria Venturelli-Casoni. The other child was Filippo. Great-great-great-grand nephew of Cardinal Lorenzo Casoni (1706). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Filippo Casoni (1801). His last name is also listed as Casonus.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Terni; then, went to Rome to study philosophy and theology with the priests della Missione.
Early life. Canon coadjutor (March 1820) and canon of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica (January 1821). He was conclavist of Cardinal Francesco Serlupi (September 1823). Domestic prelate (October 1824) and Referendary of the Court of the Apostolic Signature (December 1824). Ponens of the Congregation of Good Government (December 1824). Apostolic protonotary supernumerary (January 1825). First advisor to the court of the government of Rome (December 1828). Prelate of the Sacred Congregation of the Council (January 1829). Voter of the Tribunal of the Signature of Justice (June 1829). Abbreviatore di parco maggiore of the Apostolic Chancery (December 1829). Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1829. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace; later, voter. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1834. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore. Protonotary apostolic. Vice-commissary of the four legations, with residence in Bologna, 1835; later, pro-legate in Bologna until 1838. Pro-legate in Ravenna, 1836. Pro-governor of Rome, 1838. Governor of Rome, vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and director general of police, September 13, 1838.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 23, 1839; published in the consistory of January 24, 1842; received red hat and the title of S. Callisto, January 27, 1842. Apostolic legate in the province of Forlì for three years, September 13, 1842. Apostolic legate in Bologna, April 30, 1844 until 1845. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. President of the Census Office, 1847. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, October 4, 1847. Together with Cardinals Gabrielle della Genga Sermattei and Lodovico Altieri, member of the triumvirate that governed Rome between July 1, 1849 and April 1850.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ferrara, May 20, 1850. Consecrated, May 26, 1850, in the Sistine Chapel, by Pope Pius IX, assisted by Domenico Lucciardi, titular archbishop of Damasco, secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, and by Giuseppe Maria Castellani, O.E.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. In the same ceremony was consecrated Matteo Eustachio Gonella, titular archbishop of Neocesarea, future cardinal. Secretary of Memoriali, December 21, 1867. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Pro-datary of His Holiness, November 8, 1870 until his death.
Death. April 21, 1877, dalla febbre, con difficultà di respiro, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of Ss. Vincenzo ed Anastasia alle Tre Fontane, Rome, where his funeral took place on April 23, 1877. His remains were later buried in the crypt that he had built in the church of S. Maria de' Pini, Lugano (1).
Bibliography. Aloisio Vannicellio Casonio : S.R.E. Cardinal amplissimo prodatario SS. Papae PII IX, Ferrariaeque archiepiscopo optime merito. Ferrariae : Dominici Taddei et Filiorum, 1875; Borelli, Ludovico. Il cardinale Luigi Vannicelli Casoni aricvescovo di Ferrara. Memorie storiche. Ferrara : 1881; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 480-481; Capogrossi Guarna, Baldassare. Cenni storici del cardinale Luigi Vannicelli Casoni. Estratto dalla Rivista del Collegio Araldico, Dicembre 1904. Rome : Collegio Araldico, 1904; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 126; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 937-939; Nel pontificale giubileo dell'eminentissimo cardinale Luigi Vannicelli Casoni arcivescovo di Ferrara: il Seminario-Collegio grato ed esultante. Bologna : Tip. Pont. Mareggiani, 1875 (poetry); Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32 and 41; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 52 and 270; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 230.
Webgraphy. Bigraphy by Luca Sandoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 98 (2020), Treccani; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph by Antonio e Paolo Francesco D’Alessandri, PassatoProssimo, Roma Capitale - Sovrintendenza Capitolina - Museo di Roma; his engraving, Bologna, XIX secolo, Litografia Angiolini, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio in Bologna, Museo della Città di Bologna; his engravings, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the epitaph on the tombstone:
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