Birth. January 8, 1831, Montescourt-Lizerolles, diocese of Soissons, France. From a family of farmers. Son of Pierre Henri Lécot (1793-?) and Celestine Alexandrine Pourrier (1794-?). He spent his infancy in Noyon. His last name is also listed as Lécot.
Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Compiègne (Classical); and at the Major Seminary of Beauvais (philosophy and theology), 1852-1855; he also studied at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice. Professor of science at the Minor Seminary of Noyon from 1852.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1855, Beauvais. Professor of letters at the Minor Seminary of Noyon, 1855; vicar of the cathedral of Beauvais, 1860; he founded in 1865 La foi picarde, a periodical of ecclesiastical sciences; vicar of the cathedral of Noyon, 1869; in 1870, he was chaplain of the Gardes Mobile of Oise of the French Army during the Franco-Prussian War; pastor of the church of Saint-Antoine, Compiègne, 1872-1886. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Beauvais. The French Government presented him for the see of Dijon on March 3, 1886.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dijon, June 10, 1886. Consecrated, July 11, 1886, church of Saint-Antoine, Compiègne, by Joseph-Majence Péronne, bishop of Beauvais, assisted by François de Forges, titular bishop of Taenaros and former auxiliary bishop of Rennes, and by François Douboin, titular bishop of Rafanea, former apostolic vicar of Sénégambie. His episcopal motto was Nos autem Christi. He took possession of his see by procurator the following July 31. He was enthroned on August 11.During his episcopate in Dijon, he established the Work of Vocations; supported the reform and expansion of free education restored the cathedral; revived the Religious Weeks and the ecclesiastical conferences; published a new catechism for the diocese (1888); and revised the diocesan statutes as well as those of the chapter. The French Government proposed him for the see of Bordeaux on June 3, 1890, in spite of his strong reservations. Promoted to metropolitan see of Bordeaux, June 26, 1890. Received the pallium on the same day of his promotion. Took possession of the see by procurator on the following September 1 and was enthroned on September 16. In Bordeaux, he reorganized the Pension Fund of the old priests and the priests' retreats; favored the liturgical renewal; and enlarges the seminary. Concerned about social problems, he was a propagator of Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum Novarum,f which he made a French translation with commentary in 1891, ensuring it widely diffusion; he encouraged Catholics to become interested in social reform; supported the movement Adrien Albert Marie, count de Mun, a French political figure and social reformer of the nineteenth century; favored the popular apostolate (efficient stoves to relieve the misery of the working class, youth centers, rural banks, cooperatives, farmers' unions), and played the role of mediator in labor disputes.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 12, 1893; the pope sent him the red biretta to Paris with ablegato apostolic Raffaele Scapinelli di Leguigno; received the red biretta on July 4, 1893 from President Marie François Sadi Carnot of France; received red hat and title of S. Pudenziana on May 21, 1894. He was the recipient of the apostolic letter Gratae vehementer of Pope Leo XIII (August 3, 1893), in which the pontiff condemned the party spirit among Catholics Named member of the SS.CC. of Council, Rites, Indulgences and Sacred Relics and Seminaries and Universities of Studies on May 21, 1894. He was politically moderate and a democrat who welcomed the papal direction to rally to the French Republic and he declared himself for that form of government in February 1894. In 1901, he solemnly protested against the Law on the Associations. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. In 1905, he signed the protest of the French cardinals against the project of Separation between the State and the Church. After the Separation, he tried to form an Association Culturelle in his own archdiocese; although the Vatican did not condemn the association, forbade it elsewhere. Cardinal Lecot also tried to arrange for the continuance of public worship under the Public Meetings Law but, again the Vatican did not agree. He was very active in social reform and on behalf of the working class. He abstained himself from taking a position of the Modernist crisis. He was an excellent preacher and administrator. He was very interested in history and mathematics, and published several communications to historical societies.
Death. December 19, 1908, in the evening, suddenly, in Chambéry, on his way from Rome. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux (1).
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 379-380; "Em. Lecot (Victor-Lucien-Sulpice)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1907. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1907, p. 143; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 533-555; Lecot, Victor-Lucien-Sulpice. L'abbé Nollet de Pimprez. Noyon : Cottu-Harlay, 1856.
Webgraphy. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; engravings, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his arms, Wikimedia.
(1) This is inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
VICTOR LVCIANVS SVLPITIVS LECOT
S.R.E. CARD. PRESBTY. TIT. SANCTÆ PVDENTIANÆ
ARCHIEPISCOPVS BVRDEGALENSIS AQVITANIÆ PRIMAS
DIVINI VERBI PRÆDICATOR EGREGIVS
FRATRVM IN PRIMIS PAVPERVM AMATOR BENEFICVS
PATRIÆ ZELATOR FIDVS
ROMANI PONTIFICIS AVDITOR DEVOTVS
VIRGINIS IMMACVLATÆ PRECATOR ASSIDVVS
SANCTISSIMÆ EVCHARISTIÆ CVLTOR EXIMVS
E SACRIS LIMINIBVS REDIENS
DIE XIX DECEMBRIS ANNO R. S. MCMVIII
Birth. February 8, 1834, Naples. Son of Luigi Granniello and Emanuela Madamigella. His last name is also listed as Granielle; and as Graniello.
Education. Initial studies at the Barnabite Santa Maria di Caravaggio School, in Naples. Entered the Congregation of the Regular Clerics of St. Paul in August 1850. He did his novitiate in San Agostino, Resina, where he took the habit in October 1850 and professed in October 1851; studied philosophy in Colegio San Filippo, Macerata 1851-1853; and theology in S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, 1854; pronounced took his solemn vows in August 1855.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1857, Rome. His first assignment following his ordination was as professor of theology at San Carlo ai Catinari in Rome. Counselor of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics in 1867; of the S.C. of the Inquisition in 1873; of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council in 1877; and of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs in 1879. He was general procurator of his order, 1877-1891. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, January 8, 1892.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea in Palestina, March 29, 1892. Consecrated, April 3, 1892, church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Vincenzo Leone Sallua, O.P., titular archbishop of Calcedonia, commissary of the Inquisition, and by Francesco di Paola Cassetta, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, papal almoner.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 12, 1893; received red hat and title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, June 15, 1893. Named protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) on July 11, 1893.
Death. January 8, 1896, in the afternoon, after suffering a very serious visceral congestion on the previous January 5, in Rome. Exposed in the church of Ss. Carlo e Biagio ai Catinari, Rome; and buried in the tomb of the Congregation of the Clerics Regular of Saint Paul, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. "Giuseppe Maria Graniello" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1903, p. 198; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 443-444; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 37, 52 and 166.
Webgraphy. His engraving, portrait, arms and biographical data, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. December 9, 1827, Lubro, parish of Saint-Étienne-de-Lugdarès, diocese of Viviers, France. Son of Louis Bourret (1802-1831), a well-off farmer, and Ursule Christine Bonhomme (1804-1862).
Education. Studied humanities at Collège of Langogne (1839) and at the Minor Seminary of Puy (1841); studied philosophy and theology at the Major Seminary of Puy from 1844; and at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris (1846); interrupted his studies due to the revolutionary events; taught at the school of Privas in 1848; returned to his studies at École des Carmes, Paris. Obtained a licentiate in law in 1856; doctorate in theology in 1857 at La Sorbonne University, Paris; and a doctorate in letters in 1858. Joined the Institute of the Oratory of St. Philip of Neri (?).
Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1851, Paris. Professor at École des Carmes in 1853 as well as chaplain nuns. Secretary of the archbishop of Tours. Professor of canon law for ten years at La Sorbonne University, from 1861. Theologian of the bishop of Périgueux at the First Vatican Council (1869-1870). Military chaplain during the Commune de Paris; he tried unsuccessfully to free Georges Darboy, archbishop of Paris, who was executed before a firing squad. Examiner of the ordinants, Paris; vicar general of Algiers and of Périgueux.The French Government presented him for the see of Rodez on July 19, 1871.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rodez, October 27, 1871. Consecrated, November 30, 1871, church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, by Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Jean-Paul Lyonnet, archbishop of Albi, and by Nicolas-Joseph Dabert, bishop of Périgueux. He took possession of the see on the following December 14. His episcopal motto was Robur et solatium. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 13, 1880.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 12, 1893; received the red biretta in Paris from President Marie François Sadi Carnot of France; received red hat and title of S. Maria Nuova e S. Francesca in Foro Romano, May 21, 1894. He published several works in history.
Death. July 10, 1896, Rodez. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Rodez.
Bibliography. "Bourret (Joseph-Christian-Ernest)", La Grande Encyclopédie, inventaire raisonné des sciences, des lettres et des arts, par une société de savants et de gens de lettres. 31 vols. Paris : Larousse, 1886-1902, VII, 816; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 207-208; Jaudon, Henry Philippe Ambroise. Le cardinal Bourret, 1827-96. Rodez : [s.n.], 1928; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 175-177.
Webgraphy. His engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. March 27, 1824, Uj-Arad, diocese of Csanad, Hungary. Son of Pal Schlauch (1787-1870), an architect, and Katharina Jost (1789-1829). His first name is also listed as Lorenz; as Laurenz; as Laurentius; and Lörincz. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 8, 1835.
Education. Initial studies in Szegedin; secondary studies in Arad (1834-1838); later, he stduied in Szeged (1838-1842); then, attended the Central Seminary of Pest (1842-1836; and finally, then, attended the University of Budapest, where he earned a doctorate in theology on January 30, 1867; he received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders on December 15, 1846; the subdiaconate on December 21, 1846; and the diaconate on January 2, 1847.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1847. In the diocese of Csanad, he was curate in Gross-S. Micklos, Oravica, Pecka and Temesvár. cooperator in several parishes for five years; In 1850, he was named professor of dogmatic theology, ecclesiastical history and canon law at the Seminary of Csanad. Pastor in Merczyfalva, 1859-1869; and in Gyarnatha, 1869-1872. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Csanad, 1872-1873. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Szatmár or Szathmar, July 24, 1873.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Szatmár (now Satu Mare, Romania), July 25, 1873; he had been nominated by the emperor on March 17, 1873. Consecrated, September 21, 1873, Esztergom, by János Simor, archbishop of Esztergom, assisted by George Schoppe, bishop of Rozsnyó, by János Pauer, titular bishop of Olipo, auxiliary of Szekesfehervar, and by Joseph Szabó, titular bishop of Nilopoli, auxiliary of Esztergom. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 30, 1886. Presented by the emperor for the diocese of Nagyvárad of the Latins (now Orea Mare or Gran Varadino, Romania), on April 8, 1887; he was transferred to that see on May 26, 1887.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 12, 1893; received red hat and title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, May 21, 1894. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1897. He was an eloquent orator; and as a member of the imperial senate, he defended the Catholic interests.
Death. July 10, 1902, Nagyvárad (Grosswardein). Exposed in the cathedral of Nagyvárad, where the funeral took place, and buried there. His body was later taken to Timisoara (Temesvár), and according to his will, buried in the Schlauch family crypt, next to his father.
Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 206, no. 142; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 858-859; "Nérologie. Cardinaux." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1903. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1903, p. 567-568; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 37, 48, 359 and 532.
Webgraphy. Biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Köyvtár; biography and bibliography, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Köyvtár; engravings and biography, in Hungarian, Wikipedia; his photograph with those of another eight Hungarian cardinals; engravings, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. June 2, 1835, Riese, diocese of Treviso. Second child of Giambattista Sarto (1792-1852), rural postman, and Margherita Sanson (1813-1894). He was baptized on June 3, 1835, in Riese; his baptismal name was Giuseppe Melchior. Received the sacrament of confirmation on September 1, 1848.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Padua. Received the insignias of the clerical character on September 20, 1851; the minor orders on December 22, 1855 and on June 6, 1857; the subdiaconate on September 19, 1857; and the diaconate on February 27, 1858.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 18, 1858, Castelfranco, by Giovanni Antonio Farina, bishop of Treviso. In the diocese of Treviso, chaplain at Tombolo, 1858-1867; archpriest of Salzano, 1867-1875; canon of the cathedral chapter, 1875; spiritual director and rector of the seminary; examiner of the clergy; vicar-general; primicerius of the cathedral, 1879; for nine years spiritual director of its seminary; chancellor of the episcopal curia; prosynodal examiner; vicar capitular December 1879 to June 1880. As a young priest, passionate for mathematics and astronomy, he built sundials throughout the Venetian region.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mantua, November 10, 1884. Consecrated, November 16, 1884, in the church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar of Rome, assisted by Pietro Rota, titular archbishop of Tebe, and by Giovanni Maria Berengo, archbishop of Udine. His episcopal motto was Instaurare omnia in Christo. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 19, 1891.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 12, 1893; received red hat and title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, June 15, 1893. Promoted to the patriarchal see of Venice, June 15, 1893. Participated in the conclave of 1903 and was elected pope.
Papacy. Elected pope, August 4, 1903. Took the name Pius X. Crowned, August 9, 1903, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Luigi Macchi, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. He remained as patriarch of Venice until the appointment of his successor, Aristide Cavallari, titular bishop of Filadelfia and vicar general of Venice, in 1904. He created fifty cardinals in seven consistories.
Death. August 20, 1914, Vatican. Exposed in the patriarchal Vatican basilica and buried, on August 23, 1914, in the grotto of that basilica. He was beatified on June 3, 1951 by Pope Pius XII; his incorrupt body was definitively transferred to the patriarchal Vatican basilica and placed under the altar of the chapel of the Presentation on February 17, 1952; he was canonized on May 29, 1954 by Pope Pius XII. His feast is celebrated on August 21.
-Brugnotto, Giuliano ; Romanato, Gianpaolo. Riforma del cattolicesimo? Le attività e le scelte di Pio X. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2016;
-Burton, Katherine. The great mantle. The life of Giuseppe Melchiore Sarto, Pope Pius X. New York : Longmans, Green, 1950;
-Carli, Ferruccio de. Pío X y su tiempo. Barcelona : Plaza Janes, 1962;
-Chiron, Yves. Saint Pie X. Versailles : Publications du Courrier de Rome, 1999; -Daelli, Luigi. Pio X. : (cenni biografici). Bergamo : Società Editrice Pro Familia, 1906;
-Dal-Gal, Girolamo. S. Pio X : papa. Padova : Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1954;
-Dal-Gal, Niccolò. Beato Pio X papa. Padova : Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1951;
-Giordani, Igino. Pius X. A country priest. Translated by Rt. Rev. Thomas J. Tobin. Milwaukee : Bruce, 1954;
-Guasco, Maurilio. "Pio X, santo." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 593-608;
-Javierre, José María. Pío X. 4th. edition. Barcelona ; Madrid ; Valencia : Juan Flors, Editor, 1955;
-Lenart, Mirosław ; Romanato, Gianpaolo. Genealogia dei desideri. Pio X nella memoria del popolo dell'alta Slesia. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2016;
-Matt, Leonard von ; Vian, Nello. Avemaria per un vecchio prete. Intermezzi aneddotici lungo la vita di san Pio X . Padova : Edizioni Messaggero, 2013;
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-Regoli, Roberto. San Pio X. Papa riformatore di fronte alle sfide del nuovo secolo. Atti della giornata di studi in occasione del Centenario della morte di San Pio X (1914-2014). Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2016;
-Romanato, Giampaolo. Pio X. Alle origini del cattolicesimo contemporaneo. Torino : Lindau, 2014. (I Leoni); -Smit, Jan Olav. St. Pius X, Pope. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1965;
-Stelitano, Antonella ; Bortolato, Quirino ; Dieguez, Alejandro Mario. Pio X, le Olimpiadi e lo sport. Treviso : Editrice San Liberale, 2012;
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Webgraphy. Biography by Benigni, Umberto, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Maurilio Guasco, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 84 (2015), Treccani; his photodraw, University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin; photographs, biography, bibliography and documents, Museo San Pio X, Salzano; biography and photogallery, Santi e Beati, with 50 photographs (clicking on one of them); his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church; his statue by Florestano di Fausto and Pier Enrico Astorri, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome; photographs and chronology, in Italian, Istituto Comprensivo Sarto; his tomb in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome; after his beatification, his body was transferred to the patriarchal Vatican basilica; Le Olimpiadi «mancate» di san Pio X by .Gianpaolo Romanato, Cultura, Avvenire, 26 luglio 2012; El joven sacerdote que construía relojes llegó a ser Papa, L'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-08-21; Pio X, la Chiesa nella modernità by Gianpaolo Romanato, Avvenire, 24 ottobre 2013; Un Papa, un vescovo e i migranti. A cento anni dalla morte di Pio X e Geremia Bonomelli, L'Osservatore Romano, 16 gennaio 2014; Pio X, il papa tradito tre volte by Gianpaolo Romanato, Avvenire, 13 maggio 2014; Secret papers tell hidden story of St Pius X's election by John Bingham for The Telegraph, UCA News, June 5, 2014; Quel no che cambiò il conclave del 1903, L'Osservatore Romano, 10 giugno 2014; E lo chiamavano Papa di provincia, L'Osservatore Romano, 16 luglio 2014; Pio X, il Pontefice che invocò la pace per l'Europa by Francesco Dal Mas, Avvenire, 20 agosto 2014; Hoy los católicos celebramos a San Pío X, el Papa de la Eucaristía by Blanca Ruiz, ACI, 21 Ago. 15 / 04:09 am; Il Papa del catechismo, L'Osservatore Romano, 22 agosto 2015; Century-old blessing from Pope to Wakefield Catholic society found in a loft, Wakefield Express, Thursday 24 May 2017; Handwritten note from St Pius X found in an attic in Yorkshire, Catholic Herald, posted Friday, 2 Jun 2017; St. Pius X musical brings parishioners together by Kelsie Stelting, National Catholic Reporter, Middletown, Connecticut | Jun. 8, 2017; 8 datos curiosos sobre la vida del Papa San Pío X, ACI, 21 Ago. 17 / 05:01 pm; Il Papa del catechismo. Pio X ricordato a Riese dal cardinale prefetto della Congregazione per il clero by Beniamino Stella, L'Osservatore Romano, 22 agosto 2017; Obispos destacan legado de San Pío X para catequistas de niños y jóvenes by Bárbara Bustamante, ACI, Asunción. 22 Ago. 17 / 08:17 pm; Esce in spagnolo il Pio X di Romanato, L'Osservatore Romano, 21 luglio 2018; Pope St. Pius X — Restoring All Things in Christ by Stephanie Mann, National Catholic Register, Aug. 21, 2018; 21 agosto, san Pío X, instaurar todas las cosas en Cristo, Ecclesia Digital, 19 de agosto de 2019; San Pío X, 21 de agosto by Isabel Orellana Vilches, Zenit, agosto 20, 2020 08:39; St Pius X, Independent Catholic News, 21 August 2020; Pius X a reminder that Vatican reform isn’t a political animal by John L. Allen Jr., Crux, Rome, Aug 23, 2020; Pie X, le pape qui a héroïquement affronté une épidémie de choléra by Philip Kosloski, Aleteia, 29 août 2020; Pio X, un papa riformatere by Giovanni Maria Vian, Centro Pro Unione, N. 99 Spring 20-21, sabato 19 giugno 2021, p. 2-11; St. Pius X founded sporting tradition in the Vatican by Inés San Martín, Crux, Rome, Aug 28, 2021; The Motto of St. Pius X and the Restoration of the Church by Matthew Tsakanikas, STD, and Kevin Tracy, PhD, The Catholic World Report, August 31, 2021.
©1998-2021 Salvador Miranda.