Birth. January 25, 1895, Rome, Italy. Born to a wealthy family, he was the son of Luigi Marella and Vincenza Baldoni.
Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; and at the Royal University, Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, February 23, 1918, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar general of Rome. Further studies and pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1918-1922. Staff member of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, 1922-1924. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 9, 1923. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1924-1933. Charge d'affaires of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, February to September, 1933. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 5, 1933.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea, September 15, 1933. Consecrated, October 29, 1933, chapel of Collegio de Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Carlo Salotti, titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, and by Domenico Spolverini, titular archbishop of Larissa. His episcopal motto was Ipsam sequens non devias. Appointed apostolic delegate to Japan, October 30, 1933. Apostolic delegate to Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania, October 27, 1948. Nuncio in France, April 15, 1953.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red biretta from Charles De Gaulle, president of France; received the red hat and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte, March 31, 1960. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, August 14, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the inauguration of the Vatican pavilion at the World Fair, New York, February 20, 1964. President of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, May 19, 1964. Papal legate to the 8th centennial celebrations of Notre-Dame's cathedral, Paris, May 27, 1964; to the centennial celebrations for the arrival of the first Catholic missionaries in Japan, Tokyo, January 12, 1965; to the National Congress of the Confederation of the Christian Doctrine, Pittsburgh, United States of America, August 28, 1966. President "pro tempore" of the Administrative Commission of Saint Peter's basilica, January 1, 1968. Special papal representative to the World Fair, Osaka, Japan, June 8, 1970. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 15, 1972. Resigned the presidency of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, February 26, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 25, 1975. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 12, 1977. Archpriest emeritus of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and president emeritus of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, February 8, 1983.
Death. October 15, 1984, in his Roman residence. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 436-437.
Webgraphy. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. July 28, 1886, Boltiere, diocese of Bergamo, Italy. Youngest of the seven children of Angelo Testa, small farm owner, and Agnese Guaitani.
Education. His family, of ancient Orobic lineage, lived near the parish church where Gustavo was baptized. After the first elementary classes in the village he completed the cycle with the fourth and fifth at the Salesian school in Treviglio, where he also attended the gymnasium. From there, in order for his health to benefit from a healthier climate, he was sent to another Salesian school, by the sea, in Alassio, where he passed the first and second classical high schools years. Returning home in the summer of 1905, he enrolled for the year of maturity at the Episcopal School of S. Alessandro in Bergamo, but did not finish his studies there, but at the Paolo Sarpi high school. Directed to the ecclesiastical life, shortly thereafter it was Don Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII, then secretary of the bishop of Bergamo, Giacomo Maria Radini Tedeschi, who had him included among the four deserving clerics, destined for the years 1907-1909 to the Roman Pontifical Seminary, thanks to a scholarship from the Cerasoli college. There the spiritual director, Don Francesco Pitocchi, helped him very much. Graduated with high grades in theology in Rome in 1910.
Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1910, in the church of of the monastery of S. Grata, Bergamo, by Giacomo Radini Tedeschi, bishop of Bergamo; the master of ceremonies was Don Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, with whom the bond was further strengthened. Winner of another scholarship in Rome from the Brotherhood of Bergamo, he continued his studies at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, perfecting himself in Sacred Scripture. He remained in Rome for another three years, until - in July 1913 - he was able to enjoy a study stay in Jerusalem and Beirut: eight months during which he continued to study Oriental languages. Returning to Rome in 1914 he brilliantly passed - in front of the then prefect of the Ambrosian Library Achille Ratti, the future Pope Pius XI - the paleography and diplomatic exams. With this curriculum he returned to his diocese where Bishop Radini Tedeschi wanted him to be a professor at the seminary. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Bergamo and faculty member of its seminary, 1912-1920. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1920. Secretary of the nunciature in Austria, 1920-1923. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 28, 1921; reappointed, August 12, 1922. Papal envoy to Ruhr and Sarre, 1923-1924. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 18, 1923. Counselor of the special mission to Perú, 1925. Auditor of the nunciature in Bavaria, 1927. Counselor of the nunciature in Italy, 1929-1934.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amasea and appointed apostolic delegate to Egypt, Arabia, Eritrea, Abyssinia, and Palestine, June 4, 1934. Consecrated, November 1, 1934, cathedral of Bergamo, by Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan, assisted by Adriano Bernareggi, bishop of Bergamo, and by Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, titular archbishop of Mesembria, apostolic delegate to Bulgaria. His episcopal motto was Et patria et cor; and his coat of arms consisted of the phrase Sola gratia tua. Apostolic delegate to Jerusalem, Palestine, Transjordania, and Cyprus, February 11, 1948. Nuncio to Switzerland, March 6, 1953.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, December 17, 1959. Papal legate to the 37th International Eucharistic Congress, Münich, Germany, June 27, 1960. Pro-president of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Special Administration of Holy See, October 4, 1961. Secretary of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, August 2, 1962; title changed to prefect of the S.C. for the Oriental Churches, August 15, 1967. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the prefecture of the S.C. for the Oriental Churches, January 13, 1968. Resigned pro-presidency of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Special Administration of Holy See, May 7, 1968.
Death. February 28, 1969, in his apartment at Palazzo San Carlo in Vatican City, due to a cardiovascular collapse following a lengthy illness. Pope Paul VI had paid him a visit shortly before his death. Buried in the church of the Benedictine monastery of Santa Grata, Bergamo, with an ancient Roman sarcophagus adorning the site converted as a monument to his memory (1). In appreciation for his benefices towards them during his lifetime, the nuns commissioned a mosaic featuring Saint Agnes over his tomb site in remembrance of his mother who had the namesake of one of the most known martyrs of the early Christian times.
Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "Gustavo Testa" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 95-96.
Webgraphy. Biography by Marco Roncalli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 95 (2019), Treccani; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
A 1886 Ω 1969
Birth. February 18, 1889, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America. Son of Joseph Muench and Theresa Kraus.
Education. Studied at Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee; at the State University of Wisconsin, Madison; at the University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland; at the University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium; at the University of Oxford, Oxford, England; at the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England; and at La Sorbonne University, Paris, France.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1913, Milwaukee, by Sebastian Gebhard Messmer, archbishop of Milwaukee. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Milwaukee, 1913-1919. Further studies, 1919-1922. Faculty member of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1922-1929. Rector of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1929-1935. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 21, 1934.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fargo, August 10, 1935. Consecrated, October 15, 1935, church of the Gesu, Milwaukee, by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, apostolic delegate in the United States of America, assisted by Christian Herman Winkelmann, titular bishop of Sita, auxiliary of St. Louis, and by William Richard Griffin, titular bishop of Lida, auxiliary of La Crosse. His episcopal motto was In omnibus Christus. Military vicar delegate of the United States of America Armed Forces in Germany and apostolic visitor in Germany, 1946-1949. Regent of the nunciature in Germany, 1949-1951. Given the title of archbishop ad personam, October 28, 1950. Nuncio in Germany, March 9, 1951. Promoted to titular archbishop of Selimbria, December 9, 1959.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, December 17, 1959. Papal legate to the 19th centennial celebration of Saint Paul's visit to Malta, March 3, 1960. When he fell ill in Rome, he received an unexpected visit from the pope in early 1962; his condition worsened during his last week.
Death. February 15, 1962, of a circulatory cardiac collapse shortly after receiving a special blessing from the pope and the last rites (he had suffered from Parkinson's disease for years), at "Salvator Mundi Hospital" in Rome. He was exposed in the chapel of the Salvatorian Sisters at the hospital. On February 19, 1962, a solemn funeral mass for his repose took place at St. Peter's basilica, celebrated by Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial; and presided by Pope John XXIII, who imparted the final absolution; thirty seven cardinals participated in the mass. The Central Ecumenical Council Committee postponed its opening session so that all the conciliar fathers could attend the funeral. Many members of the diplomatic corps also were present. Later the same day, the cardinal's body began its journey to the United States, accompanied by his secretary Father Raymond Lessard. On February 21, the body of the late cardinal reposed at St. John's cathedral in Milwaukee. Archbishop William E. Cousins of Milwaukee celebrated a pontifical requiem mass. The following morning Bishop Leo F. Dworschak of Fargo led the procession from the funeral home in Fargo to the cathedral and offered pontifical mass for the repose of the late cardinal. At 8 pm., the Office of the Dead was recited by the clergy and then repeated in English by the lay persons who attended. The final funeral mass, celebrated by Cardinal Joseph Ritter, archbishop of Saint Louis, took place on February 23, in St. Mary's cathedral. Archbishop Karl J. Alter of Cincinnati preached the panegyric. Many bishops from Canada and the United States of America were in attendance, as well as leaders of the state and municipality. Fifteen thousand people walked past his bier as he lay in state at Fargo's cathedral. The cardinal was buried at Holy Cross cemetery, in Fargo. His galero is on display, hanging from the ceiling, at St. Mary's cathedral, Fargo.
Bibliography. Barry, Colman. American nuncio : Cardinal Aloisius Muench. Collegeville : St. John's University Press, 1969; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 91; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 209; Herbrich, Elisabeth. Alois Kardinal Muench : e. Lebensbild. Königstein im Taunus : Sudetendt. Priesterwerk, 1969 (Schriftenreihe des Sudetendeutschen Priesterwerkes Kvnigstein, Taunus ; Bd. 12; Schriftenreihe des Sudetendeutschen Priesterwerkes Königstein, Taunus; Bd. 12).
Webgraphy. Photographs and biography by the Abbess M. Augustina Weihermüller O.S.B., and her Community of St. Walburga's Abbey Eichstätt, Bavaria, Cardinal Muench Seminary; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. March 9, 1903, Milwaukee, United States of America. He was the fourth of the five children of Peter James Meyer, for many years a foreman at the Chain Belt Company, and Mathilda Thelen, from a family of German immigrants. One of his sisters joined the School Sisters of Notre Dame taking the name of Mary Alberta. He was cousin of Dominic Meyer, O.F.M.Cap., who for many years served as English and German speaking secretary to Father Pio of Pietrelcina, O.F.M.Cap., future saint known as "Padre Pio".
Education. Initial studies at St. Mary's parochial school, Milwaukee, of the School Sisters of Notre Dame; afterward, he attended for a year the Jesuit Marquette Academy (later named Marquette University High School); in 1917 he entered Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee; then, he was sent to Rome to reside at the Pontifical North American College, and study at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," where he obtained a doctorate in theology. After going to Milwaukee in the summer of 1927, he returned to Rome in that same year to study at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, obtaining a licentiate in in Holy Scriptures in 1927 and the certificate of candidatus ad laurem in 1928; during this stay in Rome, he resided at Collegio Germanico di Santa Maria dell'Anima.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 11, 1926, church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar of Rome. Returned to Milwaukee during the summer of 1927 and celebrated his first Mass at home in the chapel of the School Sisters of Notre Dame, where he had been an acolyte during elementary school days. Further studies in Rome, 1927-1930. Pastoral ministry in St. Joseph parish, Waukesha, archdiocese of Milwaukee, 1930-1931. Faculty member of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1931-1937; taught religion, Greek, Latin, Christian archeology, dogmatic theology and Sacred Scriptures; its rector, 1937-1946; pastoral ministry among the Italian immigrants as well as chaplain of "Serra Club". Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 14, 1938.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Superior, February 18, 1946. Consecrated, April 11, 1946, cathedral of Saint John, Milwaukee, by Moses Elias Kiley, archbishop of Milwaukee, assisted by Aloisius Joseph Muench, bishop of Fargo, and by William Patrick O'Connor, bishop of Madison. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. During his episcopate in Superior, he issued his "Programs of Instructions" designed to orient the priests of the diocese toward making the sermon a major part of their mission; he continued the programs in the archdiocese of Milwaukee. During those years, he became a skillful and enthusiastic fisherman. Promoted to metropolitan see of Milwaukee, July 21, 1953; he was installed in St. John's metropolitan cathedral on the following September 24. Transferred to metropolitan see of Chicago, September 19, 1958. His installation took place on November 16 at Holy Name cathedral.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, December 17, 1959. Attended the first three sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1964; member of the board of presidency, 1963-1964. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.
Death. April 9, 1965 (1), from a heart attack after an operation to remove a malignant brain tumor in Mercy Hospital, Chicago. Buried in the cemetery of Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary, Mundelein, archdiocese of Chicago.
Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, pp. 106-107; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1966, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1966, p. 103*; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 202; Shuster, George Nauman. Albert Gregory Cardinal Meyer. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the council, 11).
Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Milwaukee; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; What would Cardinal Meyer say? by George Weigel, The Catholic World Report, April 27, 2021.
(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1966, p. 103*, which indicates that he died on April 7, 1965.
Birth. November 12, 1887, Oteiza de la Solana, diocese of Pamplona, Spain. He was baptized on the following day, November 13 (1). He was the second of the five children of Patricio Larraona and Bartolina Saralegui. The other children were Luis, Digna, Amaprito (who died in infancy), and Amparo. Since his childhood he went to live in Estella with his aunt and godmother Catalina Eyzaguirre, a widow who assisted her uncle, a priest of the parish of San Juan. His last name is also listed as Larraona y Saralegui.
Education. Until he was seven, he attended the school of the Religiosas Anas in Estella; then received his elementary education at the school of the Piarists, receiving excellent grades; he was known as a child who asked many questions; after finishing his elementary studies, he joined the Congregation of Missionary Sons of Immaculate Heart of Mary (Claretians) in the Postulantship of Alagón, province of Zaragoza on October 12, 1900; received the religious habit, July 28, 1902, Vich; novitiate, Vich, province of Barcelona, 1902-1903; took the perpetual vows, December 8, 1903, Vich, in a solemn mass celebrated at 8 a.m. by Father Clemente Serrat, superior general of the congregation; studied three years of philosophy and three of theology in Cervera, province of Lérida, and then the last two years of the ecclesiastical career, according to the plan of studies of the Claretians, in Alagón; received the subdiaconate on May 21, 1910, in Algón, from Juan Soldevilla y Romero, archbishop of Zaragoza; and the diaconate on October 9, 1910, in Zaragoza, from the same archbishop; later, on October 3, 1911, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; he also frequented the Royal University of Rome and the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and made special studies on the founder of his congregation, Saint Antonio María Claret y Clará, and the constitutions he gave to the institute.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1911, Zaragoza, by Juan Soldevilla y Romero, archbishop of Zaragoza. Left for Rome, October 24, 1911. Further studies and pastoral ministry in his congregation, 1911-1918. In 1916, he worked with Father Felipe Maroto in the preparation of the Code of Canon Law, which was promulgated by Pope Benedict XV the following year. When the faculties of canon and civil law were reestablished in the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" in the academic year 1919-1920, he was named professor of Institutions and History of Civil Law; later, he was professor of Roman law for forty years; also taught at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide"; and at the "Scuola Pratica" of the S.C. of Religious, Rome. He participated in the general chapter of his congregation inaugurated in Vich on August 14, 1922; with assistance of other participants, he prepared the Codex Iuris Addititii, particular law of the congregation. Named director of the journal Commentarium pro Religiosis on January 28, 1923, which he had founded with Father Maroto in 1920. In his congregation he held the posts of counselor of the Italian province; visitor to Germany; general assistant to Italy, Central Europe, and China. Apostolic visitor to several religious orders and congregations. Consultor of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, October 8, 1929. Consultor of the S. C. of Religious, December 3, 1929. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of the Oriental Canon Law, April 1, 1933. Named undersecretary of the S.C. for Religious on November 27, 1943; named secretary on December 11, 1949. Member of the General Council of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, September 6, 1944. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Alfonso X el Sabio of Spain on November 8, 1946. Collaborated in the preparation of the apostolic constitutions "Provida Mater Ecclesia" of February 2, 1947; "Sponsa Christi" of November 21, 1950; and "Sedes Sapientiæ of May 31, 1956. Meber of the board of directors of Studia et Documenta Historiae et Iuris from 1935 until 1949, when he was named director; he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Member of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre on January 22, 1950. He actively participated in the organization and proceedings of the international congresses of religious in Rome (1950 and 1957); and the national congresses in the United States of America (1952); Chile, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and Australia (1954); Philippines (1955); England; Brazil and Spain (1956); Portugal (1958); and México (1960). He created centers of superior studies in Rome such as "Regina Mundi" and "Mater Divinæ Gratiæ" for the cultural development of women religious; and "Jesus Magister", for lay religious. Named bailiff knight Grand Cross of Honor and Devotion of Malta, June 21, 1956.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, December 17, 1959. Named grand penitentiary, August 13, 1961. On November 10, 1961, he was decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Isabel la Católica of Spain. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites and president of the Pontifical Commission of the Sacred Liturgy, in preparation for the Second Vatican Council, February 12, 1962; resigned and was named prefect emeritus, January 9, 1968.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Diocesarea di Isauria, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. His episcopal motto was Dilexit tradidit. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Decorated with the Order El Sol del Perú on May 7, 1962; with the Order of Infante D. Henrique of Portugal on the following May 17; with the Order Vasco Núñez de Balboa of Panamá on the following June 5. Named "Bearer of the Masterkey of the Panama Canal" on June 9, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; he was a member of the ante-preparatory and central commissions. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Named knight grand cross of the Order of Santa Agata of the Republic of San Marino on August 30, 1963. Named "Predilect Son of Navarra" on January 26, 1965. Received in the Order of San Raimundo de Peñafort, Spain, on November 6, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Sacro Cuore di Maria, April 28, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. On June 20, 1971, he went to reside at the Claretianum. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 5, 1973 until his death. He was the first Claretian cardinal in history.
Death. May 7, 1973, at 10:10 a.m., after a six-day bronchopulmonary infection, in the general headquarters of the Claretians congregation, Rome, after receiving the Holy Sacraments and the Papal Blessing. Exposed in the chapel of Collegio Claretianum, Via Aurelia, from May 7 to 9; the pope, Roman cardinals, numerous prelates of the Roman Curia, diplomats accredited before the Holy See, among them the ambassador of Spain, the marquis of Vellisca, D. Juan Pablo de Lojendio, and numerous priests and men and women religious, mostly Spanish, visited the chapel. The funeral liturgy took place in the transept of Ss. Proceso e Martiniano of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. The casket was placed on the floor, with the Gospel on top of it and the Paschal candle at its side. Participating in the funeral were the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, thirty-one other cardinals, and a large number of archbishops and bishops, priests, and a multitude of men and women religious. Several superior generals of religious orders and congregations were also present, among them Father Antonio Leghisa, of the Congregation of Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, to which the late cardinal belonged. The mass was celebrated by the secretary of the S.C. for Divine Worship, Annibale Bugnini, C.M., titular archbishop of Diocleziana, assisted by the seminarians of the Claretianum. After the mass, Cardinal Luigi Traglia, sub-dean of the Sacred College, imparted the final absolution in the name of the pope. The late cardinal was buried in the chapel of S. Giuseppe in the basilica of Sacro Cuore di Maria, Rome, according to his will.
Bibliography. Alberti, Ottorino. "Card. Arcadio Larraona" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 240-241; Frisón, Basilio. Cardenal Larraona. Madrid : Instituto Teológico de Vida Religiosa, 1979; Frisón, Basilio. Cardenal Larraona. Madrid : Editorial Publicaciones Claretianas, 1979; Frisón, Basilio. "Larraona, Arcadio." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), Supp., 425-426; "Los funerales del Cardenal Larraona." L'Osservatore Romano, Spanish edition, V, no. 20, May 20, 1973, p. 5; Mesa, Carlos E. Galería de prelados claretianos. Medellín : Editorial Zuluaga, 1985, p. 523-562.
Webgraphy. Biography by Francisco Javier Carlos Pagola Echauri, CMF, in Spanish, Diccionario Biográfico Español, DB~e; Biography, in English, Wikipedia; El Primer Cardenal Claretiano : Arcadio M. Larraona by Josu M. Alday, CMF, in Spanish, claret.org; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Mesa, Galería de prelados claretianos, p. 526. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1973. Città del
Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglota Vaticana, 1973, p. *54; and Alberti, "Card. Arcadio Larraona" in La Pontificia Università lateranense, p. 240, say that he was
born on November 13, 1887.
(2) This is the inscription on his final resting place, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
TITVLO HVIVS TEMPLI S. CORDIS B.V.M.
HVMANAS DIVINASQVE EXCOLVIT AC PROVEXIT LITTERAS
AD DISCIPLINAM IVRIS MVLTOS CONFORMAVIT MAGISTROS
VITAM EVANGELICAM RELIGIOSAM ET SAECVLAREM INSTRAVRAVIT
VIXIT DEO ECCLESIAE OMNIBVS
IN SINV MATRIS
NATVS PRID. ID. NOV. OBIIT NONIS MAIIS
A. MDCCCLXXXVII A. MCMIXXIII
Birth. June 8, 1872, Caïvano, diocese of Aversa, Italy. Son of Antonio Morano and Luisa Stanzione. His elder brother, Canon Giuseppe Morano, founded the Piccola Casa di Carità in Aversa. Following his brother's death in 1951, he took personal care of the residence, paying a visit yearly.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Aversa; at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon and civil law; at the Royal University, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in physics and mathematics; and teaching diplomas in both; and at the "Studio" of the S.C. of the Council, Rome (diploma of lawyer of the Roman Curia).
Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1897, Rome. Further studies, 1897-1900. Assistant at the observatory of the Vatican, 1900-1903. Officer of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, 1903-1925. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 20, 1918. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, April 21, 1921; voting prelate, December 28, 1922. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, January 30, 1925. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, December 20, 1935.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 17, 1959.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Fallaba, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. His epsicopal motto was Maior autem charitas. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.
Death. July 12, 1968, at 4 p.m., of a severe bronchopneumonia, in his apartment in the palace of the Holy Office, in Vatican City. Buried in the chapel of the Piccola Casa di Carità (renamed Casa Famiglia in 2005), in Aversa. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. The Istituto Tecnico Industriale Francesco Morano of Caivano, Naples, is named after him.
Bibliography. De Magistris, Luigi. "Card. Francesco Morano" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 455-456.
Webgraphy. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. February 24, 1884, Edinburgh, Scotland. Eldest son of of William Augustus Heard, headmaster of Fettes College, and Elizabeth Tamar Burt; she died when William Theodore was four. On August 9, 1910, he was received into the Roman Catholic Church by Father Stanislaus St. John, S.J,, at the Jesuit church of the Immaculate Conception, Farm Street, Mayfair, London.
Education. Studied at Oxford University, Oxford, England; at he Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy in 1915; and doctorates in both theology and canon law in 1921.
Priesthood. Ordained, March 30, 1918, Rome, for the diocese of Southwark (now a metropolitan archdiocese), England. Further studies in Rome, 1918-1921. Confessor for the students of the Venerable English College, Rome, 1918-1921; 1927-1960s. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Southwark, England, 1921-1927. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 30, 1927. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, October 1, 1927, when Monsignor Prior died; he became its dean on December 15, 1958.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, December 17, 1959. His cardinalitial motto was Recte et sapienter. He was the first Scottish cardinal since the Reformation.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Feredi maggiore, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, May 18, 1970. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He had a long decline aggravated by failing sight and hearing. He became ill on the plane bringing him back to Rome from a holiday in Scotland, where he had been staying with his friend Archbishop James Donald Scanlan of Glasgow (1). He returned regularly to Scotland in the summer for holidays. He received an honorary degree from the University of Edinburgh.
Death. September 16, 1973, at the clinic of the Blue Sisters at S. Stefano Rotondo, Rome. He received the last rites from Father John Hughes, S.J., from Glasgow. Pope Paul VI left Castelgandolfo and went to Rome to visit the cardinal's body shortly after his death. Bishop Brewer was the principal celebrant at the requiem Mass in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Cardinal Gordon Joseph Gray, archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh; Archbishop James Donald Scanlan, archbishop of Glasgow; and Bishop Edward Ellis of Nottingham were in attendance. He was buried in the tomb of the Venerable English College, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 159-160; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 208-210.
Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; The Cardinal and the Boat Race, in English, Roman Miscellany, Thursday, 17 August 2006, by Father Nicholas Schofield, Archivist of the Archdiocese of Westminster; his portrait by Derek Hill, Balliol College, University of Oxford, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) He had been accompanied to the airport by Archbishop Scanlan and his auxiliary bishop, later cardinal, Thomas Winning. They had a serious discussion about whether or not they should allow Cardinal Heard to take his flight, but the cardinal was insistent that he wanted to get back to Rome. He was taken by ambulance from Fiumicino Airport to the clinic of the Blue Sisters, where he died exactly one week later.
Birth. May 28, 1881, in the small village of Riedböhringen, archdiocese of Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. His parents, Karl Bea and Maria Merk, married somewhat late in life and he was an only child. The father was a carpenter and builder and owned a farm; he built many of the houses of Riedböhringen.
Education. When he was six, he started his initial studies at the village school, where he was tutored by the parish priest; in 1893, he went to the Lander Institute, Sasbach, for his secondary education; then, for six months, to the Gymnasium (high school) at Constance where he entered into contact for the first time in his life with Lutheran students; and then to the diocesan borading school in Rastatt; at seventeen, he thought of a religious vocation in the Society of Jesus; in 1898, he made a retreat with the Jesuits in Feldkirch, Austria, and decided to join them; his father did not favor his decision because he would have to go abroad since the Society had been expelled from Germany in 1872; four years later, he acquiesce; in 1900, he began studies at the University of Freiburg, where Professor Franz Kraus interested him in archeology, ethnology, philology, dogma, Dante, and Oriental studies; he joined the Society of Jesus on April 18, 1902, in Blyeenbeek, Holland; after two years of novitiate, 1902-1904, and his first vows, he did his philosophical studies at Valkenburg in Limburg (for three years he studied logic, theories of knowledge, cosmology, psychology, metaphysics, natural theology and ethics, all in the Scholastic tradition; Father Victor Cathrein, S.J., ethnologist and sociologist, made a great impact on the young student); for three years he did his magisterium, teaching in a Dutch Jesuit school for boys; an appendicitis operation interrupted his teaching and he spent half a year at Innsbruck studying Latin and Greek philology; in 1910, he started his theological studies at the Theological Faculty of Valkenburg, Holland; two year later, he was ordained to the priesthood; in 1913, he went to the University of Berlin for courses in ancient Oriental languages; then did his year of probation, the final stage of the Jesuit formation.
Priesthood. Ordained, August 25, 1912; Otto Karrer served his first Mass. Because some of the laws of the Kulturkampf were still in place he had to obtain permission from the authorities to celebrate his first high mass at the parish of Riedböhringen; the permission stipulated that no other Jesuit priest could accompany him. Further studies, 1912-1913. In 1913, he suffered a serious attack of pleurisy, which impeded the plan of sending him to Rome for further studies. Superior of the Jesuit residence, Aix-la-Chapelle, 1914-1917. Professor of Old Testament exegesis at the the Theological Faculty, Valkenburg, 1917-1921; and prefect of studies for two years. First provincial of the new Jesuit province of Southern Germany, 1921-1924. After the General Congregation of his order, he was named superior of the Biennial House of Formation, Rome, post which he occupied from 1924 until 1928. Faculty member, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1924-1949. Rector of the Institute of Superior Ecclesiastical Studies, Rome, 1924-1930. Consultor to several Roman congregations, 1924-1959. Member of the commission for the Revision of Catholic University statutes, 1929; the result was the apostolic constitution Deus Scientiarum Dominus of May 24, 1931. Visitor to the Catholic University of Tokyo, Japan, 1929-1930. Rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1930-1949. Director of the journal Biblica, 1930-1949. Consultor of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, 1931; of the S.C of Universities and Seminaries, 1936; of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1949; and of the S.C. of Rites, 1950. His ecumenical interests appear to have started as early as 1935, when, with the permission of Pope Pius XI, he attended a biblical conference at the University of Göttingen and established ties of personal and mutual respect. Many of his theological and biblical ideas anticipated the encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu issued by Pope Pius XII in 1943, which still is a landmark of Catholic biblical criticism in modern history. Confessor of Pope Pius XII, 1945-1958. In 1946, Pope Pius XII wanted to raise Father Bea to the cardinalate but Jesuit Superior General Father Jean-Baptiste Janssens asked the pope not to, because some Vatican veterans felt that the Jesuits had been overly favored as the pontiff had turned over to the Jesuits both the Vatican radio and the observatory at Castel Gandolfo; and had two Jesuit private secretaries. In 1954, the English Society for the Study of the Old Testament (Protestant) visited Rome and were received with great cordiality by Father Bea, and through him by Pope Pius XII. Father Bea remained an honorary member of the society throughout his life.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Saba, December 17, 1959. His cardinalitial motto was "In Nomine Domini Jesu". Named president of the Secretariat for Christian Unity on June 6, 1960; confirmed in this post on January 3, 1966.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Germania di Numidia, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. He received honorary doctoral degrees from the Universities of Vienna; Freiburg im Breisgau; Fribourg (Switzerland); Fordham (New York); Boston College (Boston, Massachusetts); Harvard (Cambridge, Massachusetts); and The Catholic University of America (Washington). He published ten books and between 1918 and 1968, he published 430 articles dealing with archeological issues, exegesis of Old Testament texts, mariology, papal encyclicals, the unity of Christians, anti-semitism, Second Vatican Council, relations to Protestantism and the Eastern Orthodox Churches, and ecumenism (1).
Death. November 16, 1968, from a bronchial infection, in a clinic in Rome. Shortly before his death in the early hours of the morning of November 16, he received a visit from Pope Paul VI while recovered at the Villa Stuart in Rome where he succumbed. Laid out in state in the same clinic, where numerous people paid their homage. On the evening of November 18, his body was transported privately to the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica in anticipation for his funeral held on the following day. His, was the first cardinalitial funeral celebrated in the simple rite following the liturgical directives of Vatican II; instead of being placed on a catafalque as was customary for members of the Sacred College dying in Rome, his casket was placed directly on a carpet on the floor of the basilica, surmounted simply by his galero while instead of the customary 100 candles, only the Paschal candle was placed; this rite remains observed for all cardinals dying in Rome to this day except for the galero. Many official delegations participated in his funeral, including a representative of Patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople and Roger Schütz, prior of Taizé. Buried in the apsis of the parish church of Saint Genesius, Riedböhringen. The house in which he was born in Riedböhringen has been since converted into a museum, and was officially inaugurated by Cardinal Johannes Willebrands on November 7, 1993 while the local primary school has been since named after him.
Bibliography. Bea, Augustin. Augustin Cardinal Bea: spiritual profile; notes from the Cardinal's diary, with a commentary, edited by Stjepan Schmidt ; translated (from the Italian MS) by E. M. Stewart. London : G. Chapman, 1971; Leeming, Bernard. Agostino Cardinal Bea. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 1); Martin, Malachi . Three Popes and the Cardinal. New York : Farrar, Straus and Giroux , 1972; Schmidt, Stjepan. Agostino Bea, cardinale dell'ecumenismo e del dialogo. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) : San Paolo, 1996. (Grandi biografie ; 5); Schmidt, Stjepan. Augustin Bea, the cardinal of unity. Translated from the Italian by Leslie Wearne. New Rochelle, N.Y. : New City Press, 1992. Translation of Agostino Bea--il cardinale dell'unità; Stanley, David M. "Bea, Augustin." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. 19 vols. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1967-1996, 16, 23-24.
Webgraphy. Photographs and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Una pietra miliare by Saretta Marotta, L'Osservatore Romano, 05 novembre 2018; „Kardinal-Bea-Jahr“ erinnert an Ökumene-Pionier, Vatican News, 06 November 2018, 11:14; Kardinal Bea zum 50. Todestag: „Ein liebenswürdiger Mensch“, vaticannews.va, interview by Christina Hoefferer, 15 November 2018, 11:09; 50 anni dalla morte. Bea, il cardinale dei fratelli ebrei by Gianni Gennari, Avvenire, giovedì 15 novembre 2018; Udienza ai partecipanti all’Incontro per commemorare il 50° della scomparsa del Cardinale Agostino Bea, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, 28.02.2019; Papa: card. Bea stimoli l'unità tra cristiani e rinnovata amicizia con gli ebrei by Amedeo Lomonaco, Vatican News, Città del Vaticano, 28 febbraio 2019, 11:40, with audio; Il «microfono» dell’unità. Il cardinale Augustin Bea e l’ecumenismo by Gabriele Nicolò, L'Osservatore Romano, 14 maggio 2021.
(1) This is the list of the books he published, taken from his biography in English in Wikipedia, linked above: De Pentateucho Institutiones Biblicæ Scholis Accomodatæ, Romæ, 1933 De Inspiratione Sacræ Scripturæ, Romæ, 1935; Archeologica biblica, Romæ, 1939; La nuova traduzione Latina del Salterio, Romæ 1946; Maria in der Offenbarung Katholische Marienkunde Bd. I Hugo Rahner, Augustin Bea, Schöningh, Paderborn, 1947; Liber Ecclesiasticæ qui ab Hebraeis appelatur Qohelet, Romæ, 1950; Canticum Canticorum Salomonis, Romæ, 1953; Imagen de María en la Antigua Alianza, Buenos Aires, Revista Bíblica,1954; Cor Jesu Commentationes in Litteras encyclicas Pii Papae XII Haurietis Aquas, Herder Freiburg 1959; Die Kirche und das judische Volk, (German Translation of La Chiesa e il popolo ebraico) Herder Frieburg 1966.
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