(10) 1. FORGÁCH, Ferenc (1566-1615)
Birth. 1566, Esztergom, Hungary. From a noble family. Son of General Simon Forgách. His last name is also listed as Forgazio; as Forgatz; and as Forgách de Ghymes. He converted from Protestantism.
Education. Studied theology in Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Esztergom, 1586. Named ambassador to several countries by Emperor Rudolf II.
Episcopate. Nominated by King Rudolf I of Hungary bishop of Vesprém, December 22, 1587 (1). He never received confirmation from the Holy See (2). Transferred by the king of Hungary to the see of Nyitra (Neutra), July 10, 1596; preconized, August 2, 1599. Consecrated, April 30, 1600, Graz, by Martin Brenner, bishop of Seckau. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, November 5, 1607. Royal viceregent of Hungary, 1607; the position was inherent to the primatial see. Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II requested his promotion to the cardinalate.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 10, 1607; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Granted the pallium on December 10, 1607. Crowned King Mattias II of Hungary on November 19, 1608 in Pozsony (Pressburg; now Bratislava, Slovakia).
Death. October 16, 1615 (3), Sklené Teplice (Szentkereszt, then in the archdiocese of Esztergom, Hungary; now in the diocese of Banská Bystrica, Slovakia). His body was transferred to Moravia; against his instructions in his will; his brother Sigismund and the cathedral chapter had him buried in the church of Saint Nicholas.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 134-135; Dénesi, Tamás. "Forgách I. Ferenc" in Esztergomi érsekek 1001-2003. Edited by Margit Beke. Budapest : Szent Istvan Tarsulat, 2003, p. 277-284; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 10, 260 and 322; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 58, 59-76, 77, 86, 109, 112, 129, 160, 195, 197, 198, 200, 204, 208, 209, 2111-213, 233 and 323.
Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, no. 7, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Könuyvtár; and portrait and brief biography, also in Hungarian, under "FORGÁCH Ferenc", Magyar Elektronikus Könuyvtár; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) Hungarian kings had the right to nominate bishops of Hungarian dioceses since the Middle Ages. The emperor of the Holy Roman Empire never had this right. Since 1526, the rulers from the Habsburg family had both titles, of Hungarian king and of Holy Roman emperor, combined in one person. They had the right to nominate bishops by virtue of being Hungarian kings, not Holy Roman emperors.
(2) The pope rejected the nomination because of his age. At that time and until the end of the 17th century, the majority of the Hungarian dioceses were titular because they were under the control of the Turks. The episcopal dignity gave the bishop a seat in the Royal Council.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 10, and the first site linked above; the second site linked above indicates that he died on October 15, 1615.
Birth. December 8, 1558, Paris. Second of the four sons of Charles de la Rochefoucald, count of Randan, and Fulvie Pico della Mirandola. Baptized shortly after his birth in the parish of Saint-André-des-Arts, Paris. His father died when he was three years old; after his death, the family returned to the household of Queen Caterina de' Medici of France. He and his brother Alexander were destined for ecclesiastical careers at a very young age. Nephew of Jean de La Rochefoucald, abbot of Marmoutier.
Education. Collége de Marmotier, Paris, under the tutorship of his uncle and of Jean Courtier; Jesuit Collége de Clermont, Paris, also under the tutorship of the latter, 1572-1579.
Early life. Vicar general to Cardinal Louis de Lorraine de Guise in the abbey of Tournus, 1569. Received the clerical tonsure, September 23, 1570, Paris. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Tournus, diocese of Châlons-sur-Saône, 1572. Master in the king's chapel, 1579. Traveled to Rome, Bologna and other Italian cities to study and visit their libraries, 1579-1580.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Clermont-Ferrand, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, not having received the sacred orders and not having obtained a doctorate, July 29, 1585. Received the minor orders, September 18, 1585; subdiaconate, September 20, 1585; diaconate, September 27, 1585; presbyterate, September 27, 1585. Consecrated, October 6, 1585, church of Sainte-Catherine, Paris, by Girolamo Ragazzoni, bishop of Bergamo, nuncio in France, assisted by Nicolas Fumeé, bishop of Beauvais, and by Antoine de Couppe, bishop of Sisteron. Abbot of Saint-Mesmin, near Orléans, from 1604.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 10, 1607; received the red hat on January 10, 1610; and the title of S. Callisto, February 1, 1610. Vice-protector of France before the Holy See, during the absence in France of Cardinal François de Joyeuse, October 1609 to May 1611. Transferred to the see of Senlis, February 15, 1610 (1). Grand almoner of France, September 1618 until February 6, 1632. Director of the Collége de Navarre, Paris, September 10, 1618. Commander of the Order of Saint-Ésprit from 1618. Abbot of Sainte-Geneviève, 1619 to February 2, 1644. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Papal commissioner for the reform of the old religious orders in France, April 8, 1622 (2). Resigned government of the diocese before September 19, 1622. President of the Royal Council, September 1622 until 1624 when he was replaced by Cardinal Richelieu (3). Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. In 1635, he asked the pope permission to resign the cardinalate and enter the Society of Jesus and end his life as a simple member of the order (4). Did not participate in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.
Death. February 14, 1645, abbey of Ste. Geneviève, Paris. Buried in the chapel of Saint Jean-Baptiste, in that abbey. His heart was deposited in the church of the Jesuit collège where he studied.
Bibliography. Bergin, Joseph. Cardinal de La Rochefoucauld : leadership and reform in the French Church. New Haven ; London : Yale University Press, 1987; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 136-141; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 367-368; Desbois, Jean. Biographie du Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld. Paris : E. Figuière, 1923; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 170; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 10, 41 and 316.
Webgraphy. His engraving, arms, tomb and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his tomb by Philippe Buister, in the chapel of St. Jean Baptiste, abbey of Ste. Geneviève, Paris, France Wikipedia; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) According to Bergin, Cardinal de La Rochefoucauld : leadership and reform in the French Church, p. 36, the cardinal exchanged the diocese of Clermont for this one, which was close to Paris and the court, in order to fulfill the obligations of episcopal residence. He also gave up the Abbey of Saint-Mesmin in the exchange. He took possession of the diocese of Senlis in 1613.
(2) These religious orders were the Benedictines, the Augustian Canons, Cluny, and Cîteaux.
(3) According to Bergin, Cardinal de La Rochefoucauld : leadership and reform in the French Church, pp. 64-65, it is unclear when he left the presidency of the council because he failed to formally resign.
(4) Fr. Muzio Vitelleschi, superior general of the Society of Jesus, obtained the consent of Cardinal Barberini but Pope Urban VIII decided against the request. Fr. Vitelleschi was given permission to take the cardinal's vows in his deathbed and to bury him in a Jesuit habit. In his testament, the cardinal left his books and his heart to the Collége de Clermont.
(12) 3. XAVIERRE, O.P., Jerónimo (1546-1608)
Birth. 1546, Zaragoza, Spain. Of an illustrious family. Son of Domingo Xavierre, andador or alguacil of Zaragoza for more than thirty years, and Isabel Pérez de Caseda. He had at least three sibling; two of them are known: Father Maestro Friar Domingo Xavierre; and Ana Xavierre, mother of Antonio, canon of the cathedral chapter of the Seo de Urgel. Another illustrious nephew was Father Maestro Friar Jerónimo Xavierre, professor at the University of and prior of the Domincans. His last name is also listed as Xavier; as Javierre; as Zavierre; and as Xaveres.
Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in 1562; professed, December 28, 1563, studied at Real Convento de Santo Domingo, Zaragoza, together with Friar Juan Pérez, in the hands of Father Maestro Friar Tomás Esquivel, prior of the convent; later, studied in the Dominican school of Tortosa; and in Colegio de San Vicente Ferrer, Zaragoza.
Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Lector of vespers, Dominican school of Tortosa; organized the school's statutes, November 23, 1575. Obtained the title of magister in the Dominican province of Aragón; became its provincial, 1600; rector of Colegio de San Vicente Ferrer, Zaragoza; four times prior of the Royal Convent of Zaragoza. First professor of Prima de teología, University of Zaragoza, May 24, 1585 for fourteen years. Named by the king of Spain visitor of the abbeys and monasteries of the Royal Patronato in Aragón in 1599. Elected master general of his order in its general chapter, Rome, June 12, 1601, by a two vote mayority; sent numerous priests to England to assist the persecuted Catholics and asked the Dominican provincial of Ireland to provide all the spiritual assistance possible to alleviate their situation; founded a Collegio Maggiore in Königsgratz, Bohemia, for the formation of friars to defend the faith against the heretical doctrines of the times. Confessor de estado of King Felipe III of Spain, post that gave him great political influence; from that time, 1605 or 1606, he ceased in practice as master general of his order, and formally when he was promoted to the cardinalate. Member of the Royal Council of State.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 10, 1607; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title (1).
Death. September 2, 1608, of calenturas pestilentes, in Valladolid, while preparing to travel to Italy to assume the post of viceroy of Naples (2). His body was transferred to Zaragoza and buried in a magnificent sepulchre with his kneeling statue over an urn in the chapter and chapel of the patriarchs in the Dominican convent (3). His tomb was badly damaged during the 1808-1809 sieges and presently he is buried in the church of San Ildefonso, Zaragoza (4).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 141-143; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 10.
Webgraphy. Biography by Javier Burrieza Sánchez, in Spanish, DB~e, Diccionario Biográfico Español; El Cardenal Fray Jerónimo Xavierre (1546-1608) by Tomás Echarte, O.P., Cuadernos de Historia Jerónimo Zurita, 39-40, no. 862 (1981), 151-173; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.
(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 10. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali dellla Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 142, indicates that Fontana says that he received the title of S. Sisto, but adds that this is contradicted by Chacón, and Frs. Quietif and Echard in their work about the writers of the Order of Saint Dominic, who maintain that he could not have received a title because he never went to Rome. His biography, linked above, says that he was given the title of S.Sisto but also cites a source that states he was never assigned a title.
(2) This is according to Echarte, El Cardenal Fray Jerónimo Xavierre (1546-1608), linked above. Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 10, says that he died on September 8, 1608.
(3) His epitaph read:
(4) According to Mr. Mark West, from London, the much damaged tomb of Cardinal Xavierre (minus its original kneeling figure and urn) is now at the end of the south aisle of the church between the high altar and the altar of San José. The inscription on the tomb has only ten full lines of text and reads:
(13) 4. SAVOIA, Maurizio di (1593-1657)
Birth. January 10, 1593, Turin. Fourth son of Carlo Emanuele I "il Grande", duke of Savoy, and Catalina, Infanta of Spain, daughter of King Felipe II of Spain. Relative of Cardinal Amedeo di Savoie (1449). His last name is also listed as Sabaudia; and as Savoy.
Education. Educated in the Spanish court.
Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical state when he was very young and for purely political motives. He never took the vows and became a cardinal when he was fifteen years old.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 10, 1607. Abbot commendatario of S. Michele della Chiusa, 1611. Lieutenant-general of Piedmonte, 1615. Abbot commendatario of Casanova, diocese of Saluzzo, 1618. Went to France in 1618 to conclude the marriage of his brother Vittorio Amadeo with Christine of France. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the red hat on February 18, 1621; and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, March 17, 1621. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, April 19, 1621. Protector of France before the Holy See. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII; as protector of France, he had a decisive role in the election of Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, March 16, 1626. Cardinal protodeacon. Protector of Spain before the Holy See. Supported by Spain, he maneuvered to obtain the tutelage of his nephew Carlo-Emmanuele, provoking a civil war in Piedmont which lasted until 1642. Resigned cardinalate and married his niece Princess Ludovica Cristina of Savoy, on August 18, 1642. On November 10, 1642, gave up his deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata. In the consistory of December 1, 1642, the Pope announced that the Cardinal di Savoia had presented to the nuncio in Madrid his resignation from the cardinalate and from his diaconal church, and declared his matrimony valid. In the consistory of April 13, 1643, the pope received per procuratores the resignation and accepted and ratified it. They did not have any children. He became prince de Oneglia. He devoted himself to the study of philosophy and letters.
Death. October 4, 1657, of an apoplexy, in Villa della Regina, Turin. Buried in Sacra di San Michele, an architectural complex situated on top of Monte Pirchiriano, at the entrance of Val di Susa, in the comune di Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, diocese of Susa. It is the monument symbol of the region of Piedmont. It was restructure and entrusted to the Rosminiani Fathers. There is a monument to his memory just over the entrance of the church of S. Maria in Via Lata, Rome.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 143-145; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 10, 5153 and 54.
Webgraphy. Biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedie on line, Treccani; his engraving, The Australian National University; his portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving, The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University, England; engravings, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(14) 5. GONZAGA, Ferdinando (1587-1626)
Birth. April 27, 1587, Mantua. Second of the six children of Vincenzo I, duke of Mantua, and his second wife, Eleonora de' Medici. He was batized the following June 24. The other siblings were Francesco, Guglielmo Dominico Lungaspada, Margherita, Vincenzo and Eleonora. Duke Vincenzo I had three natural children: Francesco, bishop of Nola, possibly by Agnese de Argotta, marchioness of Grana; Silvio, possibly also by Agnese de Argotta, marchioness of Grana; and Francesca, possibly by Felicita Guerrieri. He was sixth duke of Mantua and fourth duke of Montferrato. Brother of Cardinal Vincenzo Gonzaga (1615). He was baptized on June 24, 1587 and his god-parents were the king and queen of France. Other cardinals of the family were: Francesco Gonzaga (1461); Sigismondo Gonzaga (1505); Ercole Gonzaga (1527); Pirro Gonzaga (1527); Francesco Gonzaga (1561); Federico Gonzaga (1563); and Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.S.Io.Hier. (1578).
Education. He was destined by his family to an ecclesiastical career. Intial studies in Mantua under Abbot Aurelio Pomponazzi of Santa Barbara; and Giovanni Antonio Magini, professor of Mathematics. Knight of the Military Sovereign Order of Malta in 1592. Later, he studied at the University of Ingolstadt from 1599 until 1602; and then, at the University of Pisa for three years.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 10, 1607; received the red hat on February 6, 1610; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica on February 15, 1610. Knight of the Military Order of the Blood of Jesus Christ in 1612; later its grand master. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, November 19, 1612. After the deaths of his father, brother and nephew, obtained the investiture as duke of Mantua and Monferrato from the emperor in October 1613. He then resigned the cardinalate and the pope accepted his resignation in the consistory of November 16, 1615. To avoid the extinction of his family, he married Caterina de' Medici, on February 17, 1617, but they did not have any children (1).
Death. October 29, 1626, Mantua. Buried in the subterranean church of Santa Barbara, Mantua. He left an artistic patrimony of rare splendor.
Bibliography. Brinton, Selwyn. The Gonzaga--Lords of Mantua. London : Methuen, 1927, pp. 193-204; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 145; Chambers, D. S. "The 'Bellissimo Ingegno' of Ferdinando Gonzaga (1587-1626), Cardinal and Duke of Mantua". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 50 (1987), 113-147; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 10 and 53; Maestri, Roberto ; Arata, Angelo ; Tamalio, Raffaele. Ritratto di un principe del Rinascimento. Ferdinando Gonzaga duca di Mantova e di Monferrato. Monferrato : Marchesi del Monferrato, 2016. (Studi sul Monferrato).
Webgraphy. Biography by Gino Benzoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 46 (1996), Treccani; portraits, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Storia di Mantova, ITIS E. Fermi Mantova e Società per il Palazzo Ducale; biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedie on line, Treccani; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Domenico Zampieri, Pinacota Nazionale, Bologna, pinterest.com; Diocese of Mantua by Umberto Benigni, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his genealogy, B2 C1 D2, Genealogy EU; The 'Bellissimo Ingegno' of Ferdinando Gonzaga (1587-1626), Cardinal and Duke of Mantua by David Sanderson Chambers, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 50 (1987), pp. 113-147; I Gonzaga e i papi : Roma e le corti padane fra Umanesimo e Rinascimento (1418-1620). Atti del convegno Mantova - Roma 21-26 febbraio 2013, a cura di Renata Salvarani. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013. (Monumenta studia instrumenta liturgica); Maestri, Roberto. Ferdinando Gonzaga. Duca di Mantova e di Monferrato (1613-2013). Circolo Culturale, I Marchesi di Monferrato, 2013.
(1) He had an illegitimate son, Francesco Giacinto (1616-1630) by Camilla, daughter of Count Ardizzino Faà of Monferrato. His marriage, celebrated in Mantua in 1615, had been kept secret and later, in 1616, repudiated.
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