The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VI (1775-1799)
Consistory of June 1, 1795 (XXIII)

(73) 1. DELLA SOMAGLIA, Giulio Maria (1744-1830)

Birth. July 29, 1744, Piacenza. Della Somaglia is a toponymic name. Contemporary sources give him the last name Capece Anguillara; and still other modern sources assign him the last name Cavazzi. The family was inscribed in the patriciates of Piacenza and Milan; it was related to the Capece family of Naples and was an ally of the family of Pope Sixtus V. Son of Carlo Maria Capece Anguillara, baron Della Somaglia, and Countess Marianna Fenaroli. Baptized by Cardinal Giulio Alberoni and named after him. When he was twelve years old, he was sent to Rome and destined to the ecclesiastical state. His first name is also listed as Giulio only; and as Giulio Cesare; and his last name as Somalia.

Education. Studied at Collegio Nazzareno, Rome, 1756-1764; and later, at La Sapienza University, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1773.

Early life. Conclavist of Cardenal Ludovico Calini in the conclave of 1769. Privy chamberlain of Pope Clement XIV in 1769. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate of His Holiness and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on March 20, 1775. Secretary of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics, March 25, 1775. Pope Pius VI named him successively voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, 1775; protonotary apostolic non participantium, and prelate of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites, July 1784. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Felice e Tranquilino, Piacenza, December 1785. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, March 1786. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, January 1787 until his promotion to the cardinalate. Prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 2, 1787. Examiner of the professors newly promoted to academic chairs.

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Antioch, December 15, 1788. Consecrated, December 21, 1788, in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, by Cardinal Hyacinthe-Sigismond Gerdil, B., assisted by Nicola Buschi, titular archbishop of Efeso, and by Pierluigi Galletti, titular bishop of Cirene.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1795; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, September 22, 1795. On September 22, 1795, he was named vicar general of Rome, occupying the post until 1818. Prefect of the S.C. of the Residence of Bishops from September 22, until September 28, 1818. Prefect of the Collegio e Seminario Romano. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 24, 1797 until January 29, 1798. In February 1798, he was sent by Pope Pius VI in a mission to General Louis Alexandre Berthier to try to stop his advance with a French army toward Rome; realized that the attempt was useless and on his return alerted Cardinals Romoaldo Braschi Onesti and Giuseppe Albani of the danger of being arrested; they both fled to safety but he was arrested and imprisoned in the Monastery of Convertite, and later expelled from Rome by the French authorities. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII. During the conclave, the cardinals elected him camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals and he was confirmed in the post by the new pope, occupying it until February 23, 1801. Confirmed by the new Pope Pius VII as vicar of Rome before April 2, 1800. He was sent by the pope as his legate a latere to Rome together with two other cardinals to take possession of the government of the city; he arrived on June 7, 1800 and prepared the solemn entrance of the pope in his freed capital on July 3, 1800. He was charged with the examination of the concordat with France. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites and Ceremonies from October 30, 1800 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, July 20, 1801. Prefect of the spiritual of Collegio Romano, 1801. Named protector of the Order Cistercense; and of the Order of the Piarists, July 24, 1802. He was one of the fourteen cardinals expelled from Rome by the French authorities on March 23, 1808. Called to Paris by Napoléon, he was exiled to Charleville; refused to attend Napoléon's wedding to Archduchess Maria-Louise of Austria, celebrated on April 2, 1810; he was one of the thirteen "black cardinals", prohibited by Napoléon to wear the red cardinalitial habit. He was relegated to Mézières together with Cardinal Giovanni Filippo Scotti Gallaratti until he was recalled after the signature of the concordat of Fontainebleau by Pope Pius VII on January 25, 1813. He was reunited with the pope and then exiled again to Draguignan on January 27, 1814. An order of the provisional government freed him on April 2, 1814 and he went to Rome. After the restoration of the papal government, he was named by Pope Pius VII secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Universal and Roman Inquisition on May 20, 1814; he occupied the post until his death. Confirmed as archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica before August 3, 1814. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, September 26, 1814. During the trip of the pope to Genoa, March 22 to June 7, 1815, he governed Rome as president of the Giunta di Stato. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, commendatario of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, and Sommista of the Apostolic Letters, October 2, 1818 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, December 21, 1818. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial May 10, 1820. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, May 29, 1820. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Secretary of State, September 28, 1823 to January 17, 1828. Pro-prefect of the SS.CC. of Propaganda Fide and of the Correction of the Books of the Oriental Church, September 28, 1823 to January 13, 1824; and again from January 24, 1824 until October 1, 1826. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, October 1, 1826 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII.

Death. April 2, 1830, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, where the funeral took place; buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva. Last surviving cardinal of Pope Pius VI.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 363-365; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 38, 49, 56 and 87; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 37, 38, 39, 41 and 43.

Webgraphy. Biography by Luca Sandoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 93 (2018), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, portrait and biography, in Italian, Cathopedia; his portrait by Gaspare Landi, Museo Nazionale d'Arte Moderna; his portrait on a mural, secolo XIX (1850-1899), ambito laziale, regione ecclesiastica Lazio, diocesi Frascati, Beni Ecclesiastici in web, BeWeB; his engraving by Caelo Antonini, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

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SANCLEMENTE, O.S.B. Cam., Enrico (1732-1815)

Birth. 1732, Cremona.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict Camaldolese when he was very young.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Procurator general of his order; later, its abbot general. Entered the service of the Roman Curia as consultor of the S.C. of Rites, February 1767. Named by Pope Pius VI secretary of the S.C. for the Examination of Bishops on March 30, 1789. Named consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office before November 7, 1795.

Cardinalate. According to Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 627, Pope Pius VI considered promoting him to the cardinalate but the elevation never took place. Author of various works on numismatics (1). His discoveries in the subject confirmed theory of Cardinal Enrico Noris, O.S.A., affirming that the date of the birth of Christ was wrongly calculated. He was able to make the papal government obtain in 1794 the valuable collection of the duke of Bracciano, which included the old collection of Queen Cristina of Sweden.

Death. May 9, 1815, Cremona. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Ala Ponzoni, Giuuseppe. Sulla emendazione dell'era volgare del signor abate Enrico Sanclemente. Cremona : [s. n.], 1811; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 627; Cattaneo, Gaetano ; Sanclemente, Enrico. La corrispondenza tra Gaetano Cattaneo ed Enrico Sanclemente, 1810-1814. Milano : Comune di Milano, Settore cultura e spettacolo, Raccolte archeologiche e numismatiche, 1993. (Biblioteca archeologica); Gariboldi. Andrea, "Enrico Sanclemente e la 'Medaglia di Cicerone' del Museo di Classe" in Rivista Italiana di Numismatica e Scienze Affini vol.116 (2015), p.361-390; La Guardia, Rina. La correspondenza tra Gaetano Cattaneo ed Enrico Sanclemente (1810-1814). Milano : Raccolte Archeologiche e Numismatiche, 1993; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 295.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Lombardia Beni Culturali, Regione Lombardia - Università degli Studi di Pavia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; Sanclemente, Enrico 1732-1815 [WorldCat Identities]; Fondo Corrispondenza Cattaneo-Sanclemente, Luogo di conservazione : Civica Biblioteca Archeologica e Numismatica di Milano.

(1) He published De vita et rebus gestis Ferdinandi Romualdi Guiccioli ... cemmentarius (Venice, 1764); De vulgaris aeræ emendatione libri quatuor (Romae : Typis Joannis Zempel, 1793); De nummo M. Tulii Ciceronis a magnetibus Lydiæ cum eius imagine signato dissertatio, qua ipsius incorrupta vetustas asseritur, et vindicatur (Romae : typis V. Poggioli, 1805); De classensi et regio neapolitano M. Tulii Ciceronis numinate Magnesiæ Lydiæ non quædam monumenta (Romae, 1807); Musei Sanclementiani numismata selecta regum, populorum et urbium, præcipue imperatorum romanorum, græca, ægyptiaca et coloniarum illustrata, libri III cum figuris, additio De epochis siue de notis chronologicis numismatum imperialium quae ex incorruptis fontibus hactenus innotescunt liber 4, libro IV (Romae: Typis Vincentii Poggioli, 1808-1809, 4 volumes); Series criticochronologica episcoporum Cremonensium, sub auspiciis praestantissimi antistitis Homoboni Offredi ex authenticis monumentis aucta et emendata suaeque integritati maxima ex parte restituta, auctore Henrico Sanclementio (Cremonae : apud Josephum Feraboli, MDCCCXIV).

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SIESTRZEŃCEWICZ-BOHUSZ, Stanisław Jan (1731-1826)

Birth. September 3, 1731, in Zańki (or Zamki), diocese of Vilnius, in the region of Novogrod. Of the Polish noble family of Strzała. His father, Jan Siesrtzeńcewicz, was a Calvinist and guardian of the county of Starodubowsk; and his mother, Kornelia z Odyńców, was a Catholic.

Education. In 1743, he began to study at the Calvinist school in Kiejdany. In 1745, he was going to start to study in Berlin, but he was assaulted on the way, and lost the money destined for his education. He then joined the Prussian Army. On December 15, 1745, wounded in the Battle of Kesseldorf, he left the army. On December 26, 1745, he enrolled in Joachim's high school in Berlin. Studied philosophy at the University of Frankfurt on the Oder, 1748-1751. Teacher of the sons of Stanislaw Ignacy Radziwill, 1754-1759. Converted to Catholicism in 1754, trying to obtain the hand of a beautiful Catholic lady, which ultimately ended in failure. Theological studies in Warsaw, 1759-1763. Received the clerical insignias and the minor orders on April 17, 1763.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on May 29, 1763; and the diaconate on June 12, 1763.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1763. Canon of Żmudź (Samogitia), 1764. Cantor coadjutor of the cathedral chapter of Vilnius in 1765. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Vilnius; and deputy to the court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1768.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mallus and appointed suffragan bishop of Vilnius, July 12, 1773. Consecrated, October 3, 1773, by Jerzy Mikołaj Hylzen, former bishop of Smoleńsk. He exercised ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the territories occupied in the first partition of Poland by Russia. Knight of the Order of Saint Stanislaus in 1773. On December 3, 1773, Empress Catherine II the Great of Russia appointed him bishop of the Catholics of the whole of Russia. with the uncannonical title of the Ordinary of Belarus; this decision had not received approval from the Holy See. Pope Clement XIV, after lengthy negotiations, gave him a limited right of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, just as a bishop delegate. The law expanded the papal nuncio in Warsaw, Giovanni Andrea Archetti, titular archbishop of Calcedonia, July, 1776. Received the Order of the White Eagle, 1779. In January 1782, Empress Catherine II gave him the title of archbishop of Mohilev. Appointed by the pope archbishop of the newly created archbishopric of Mohilev, December 11 or 21, 1783. He received the pallium from Nuncio Archetti on January 29, 1784.

Cardinalate. The next step that the Russian empress took to strengthen the empowerment of her submissive ecclesiastical hierarchy was the obtaining of the dignity of cardinal for the archbishop of Mohilev. Pope Pius VI rejected this claim, although in 1785 it was repeated several times. Later, the empress used diplomatic blackmail to achieve her intended purpose of creating Archbishop Siesrzeńcewiacz cardinal. In 1796, the pope acquiesced to the promotion as a Malum neccesarium (necessary evil). But shortly after, the pope decided to withdraw his consent and Empress Catherine II died on November 17, 1796. Her son and successor, Emperor Paul I, who was hostile to his mother, withdrew many of her actions and initiatives, including the pressure for the cardinalitial promotion of Archbishop Siestrzeńcewicz. In 1798, the pope granted Archbishop Siestrzeńcewicz and his successors the right to wear cardinals' robes, privilege already enjoyed by the archbishops of Gniezno since 1749; and twenty years later given to the archbishops of Warsaw. President of the Catholic department in the College of Justice and awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky and the Order of St. Andrew, January, 1798. Superior of the Catholic Diocese in all of Russia, May 9, 1798. Gained authority over the Ukrainian Greek Catholic bishops, 1799. Grand almoner of the Order of Malta, April 18, 1799. Awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 1799. President of the Roman Catholic Theological College, 1803. He admitted to himself the position of Vilnius diocese administrator, after the death of Bishop Jerome Stroynowski in 1815. Member of the imperial Russian Academy, 1807. He was also awarded the Order of St. Anna and the Order of St. Vladimir. Loyal to the tsar's power, he supported the subordination of the Catholic Church in Russia to state authorities; and being hostile to the Uniate Church, he contributed to its liquidation from the lands that had been taken away in the partition of Poland. Once again, the nomination of cardinal for the old hierarchy was raised in 1816, but after an exchange of correspondence between St. Petersburg and Rome, the then Emperor Alexander I completely withdrew the initiative taken.

Death. December 1, 1826, in Petersburg, Russia. Buried in the church of St. Stanislaus in St. Petersburg, which he had founded.

Bibliography. Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000; Nitecki, Piotr. Kardynałowie Kosścioła w Polsce. Częstochowa : Kuria Metropolitalna w Częstochowie, Tygodnik Katolicki Niedziela, 1999; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, p. 456-457; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 274 and 293; Wołoszyński, Ryszard. "Siestrzeńcewicz Stanisław Jan", In: Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Warsaw 1996-1997, volume 37, p. 375-380.

Webgraphy. Portrait, arms and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his engraving by Józef Chrzczonowicz, Cyfrowa Biblioteka Narodowa; his engraving by Józef Chrzczonowicz, Cyfrowa Biblioteka Narodowa; his bust by an unknown artist, Wikimedia Commons.

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